Seshat (Sefkhet-Abut) To Shepseskare (Ini) (d. 2419 b.c.e.)

She was a goddess of Egypt serving as the patroness of learning, called “the Lady of topics.” The patroness of writing also, Seshat was a consort of the god thoth and she was associated with the persea tree. This unique symbol, and “the Tree of Heaven,” were the receptacles of historical records. seshat wrote the name of each ruler upon the Persea’s leaves when he was crowned. Seshat also served as “the Keeper of Memories,” inscribing human and divine deeds on other leaves of the Persea Tree.
Also called sefkhet-Abut, seshat was “the Mistress of Architects.” hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 b.c.e.) offered Seshat tallies of the goods brought from punt to Egypt. The goddess was normally depicted as a woman wearing a leopard skin and carrying writing reeds, a scribe’s palette, or plumes. In time, Seshat became a protectoress of the library of Alexandria in the Ptolemaic Dynasty (304-30 b.c.e.).

Sesheshet (Idut, Hor-watet-khet) (fl. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty She was a daughter of teti (r. 2323-2291 b.c.e.). Sesheshet married mereruka, a prominent vizier of the time, and she was commemorated with a statue, depicting her as a KA, entering the world through a false door. Mereruka’s tomb at saqqara is well known for its elaborate reliefs and statues. There are 32 chambers in this tomb. Sesheshet bore a son, Meri-Teti.

Seshi (Mayebre) (d. c. 1635 b.c.e.)

Ruler of the Asiatic Fifteenth Dynasty, the Great Hyksos

He ruled from the hyksos capital of avaris and was a contemporary of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Thebes. His throne name meant “Just in the Heart of Re.” Seshi’s seals and scarabs were found throughout Lower Egypt and as far south as the third cataract of the Nile in nubia (modern Sudan). He was the successor of salitis, the founder of the dynasty.

Set (Seth, Sutekh)

An Egyptian deity, also recorded as seth, which meant “instigator of confusion,” he was the son of geb and nut and the brother of osiris, isis, and nephthys. The Greeks associated him with Typhon, and set was regarded as both good and bad.
First recorded in nagada, Set was worshiped in the Predynastic Period, before 3000 b.c.e. In the Osirian tradition he murdered osiris, fought horus, and was judged by the other deities. set was exiled to the outer perimeters of the universe. He was a defender of re, however, and he became the patron of the hyksos of avaris.
kom ombo was a major cult center of Set as he was given Upper Egypt by geb and then lost it to horus.In the pyramid texts he is called both evil and good, becoming evil during the Third Intermediate Period (1070-712 b.c.e.). In some eras he was associated with the slaying of apophis, the wicked serpent that made nightly attempts to destroy the god Re. During the Ramessid Period (1307-1070 b.c.e.) he was viewed as the god of foreign lands and was supposedly married to the goddess Nephthys. As a love god he was often invoked by the use of chants, amulets, and charms.
He is best known, however, for his part in the osirian cult. set murdered osiris and set his coffin adrift. When Isis found the body and restored it, Set cut the flesh to pieces and hid them. Isis found all of Osiris except for his phallus and brought about his resurrection. Horus, the son of osiris, then set about seeking revenge and osiris pleaded a case against set before the gods.
cult centers for set were located along caravan routes and in the western oases. He was elevated to a national god when ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) honored him at the new capital, per-ramesses, in the eastern Delta. In time, the dominant Osirian cult led to the decline of the set cult. set had his own following, a group that fought mock battles with the Followers of Horus at festivals. The Set advocates always lost.

Set Amentet (Seti-Amenti)

It was an eternal paradise of Egyptian mortuary traditions, an edenic site in the west where the deceased renewed their existence. The term was also used in some eras to describe necropolis areas.

Setau (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

Viceroyal official of the Nineteenth Dynasty

He served ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) as the governor of nubia, the region below aswan (modern Sudan). A mortuary stela commemorates setau’s career and honors. He began his service to the crown as a scribe and then became a steward of the temple of amun and ultimately the viceroy of Nubia. setau was the official who rebuilt part of the Ramessid temple in abu simbel after the earthquake that took place in the 31st year of Ramesses ii’s reign.

Sethirkhopshef (1) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

Prince of the Nineteenth Dynasty

He was an heir of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.) who died before taking the throne. He signed a letter to hat-tusilis iii, the ruler of the hittites, congratulating him on the peace treaty forged between the Hittites and Egypt. Sethirkhopshef was buried in the valley of the queens. He died in Ramesses Il’s 21st regnal year. There is some indication that he was originally named Amen-hirkhopshef.

Sethirkhopshef (2) (fl. 12th century b.c.e.)

Princely victim of smallpox in the Twentieth Dynasty A son of ramesses iii (r. 1194-1163 b.c.e.), he was a charioteer of the royal stables but died during a smallpox epidemic. Sethirkhopshef was buried in thebes. His tomb has corridors leading to a square chamber and a burial site. Ramesses iii is depicted in the reliefs of the tomb as introducing sethirkhopshef to the deities of Egypt’s world beyond the grave. Sethirkhopshef was buried in the valley of the queens.

Sethnakhte (Userkha’ure’meryamun) (d. 1194 b.c.e.)

Founder of the Twentieth Dynasty

He ruled from 1196 b.c.e. until his death. Little is known of his background but it is possible that he was a grandson of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.). Sethnakhte was elderly when he founded the dynasty. He was married to tiye-mereniset and had a son, ramesses iii.
sethnakhte took the throne of Egypt “to clear the land of traitors,” a reference to the reign of twosret (1198-1196 b.c.e.), the queen who usurped power at the close of the Nineteenth Dynasty with the help of an official named bay, also called Irsu. He was assuming the throne to welcome back “the ready faces which had been turned away.” These were officials and servants who had fled the court during Twosret’s reign.
Restoring order, sethnakhte opened temples and started his own tomb. He was unable to complete it, however, and was placed in the usurped tomb of Twosret. some scenes and reliefs were altered for his burial while Twosret’s cartouches were covered with plaster. seth-nakhte’s coffin was found in the mummy cache in the tomb of amenhotep ii at Thebes. The unidentified mummy discovered in sethnakhte’s tomb may be his royal remains. A granite sarcophagus was found there in ruins.

Seti (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

Prince of the Nineteenth Dynasty

He was a son of ramesses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.), the ninth heir to the throne. His mother was Queen nefer-tari-Merymut. He served as a court priest and as a military commander. Temple reliefs at luxor temple show him leading prisoners to his father in the Battle of kadesh. Seti died before he could inherit the throne.

Seti I (Menma’atre, Meryen-Ptah) (d. 1290 b.c.e.)

Second ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty He reigned from 1306 b.c.e. until his death. Seti I’s reign was heralded as a “Repeating of Births,” a term denoting divine inspiration and used originally in the Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1783 b.c.e.). He was the son of ramesses i and Queen sitre.
A commoner at birth, seti i was raised in the military commands of Egypt and came to the throne as a tough campaigner bent on restoring Egypt’s empire. He marched out of Tjel, a border fortress, with three divisions and overran palestine, syria, and the surrounding territories. seti i reoccupied strategic forts and garrisons on the Mediterranean coast and returned to Egypt with prisoners and treasures. In the karnak temple at thebes (modern Luxor), Seti I had reliefs inscribed on the entire north wall to commemorate this campaign. He is depicted marching to palestine and conducting battles. in subsequent campaigns he advanced on the Amorite coastlands, captured the region of the orontes River, and confronted the hittites. He received the whole of Palestine and the syrian coastal regions as a result of his military efforts.
seti i also met a Libyan invasion of the Delta with equal vigor, and he fought two battles to rid the northern area of the invaders. He led campaigns in nubia (modern Sudan), founding amara and shaat-er-reqal between the second and third cataracts. A site on sal island, Shatt became the administrative base for the viceroy of Nubia, an individual named Amenemope. The Nubian campaigns were conducted by seti i to put down a revolt by the irem people. seti i plundered the region as a result.
In Egypt he restarted reclamation of the natural resources, digging wells in strategic places to benefit miners and quarry workers. He administered the land from Memphis, avaris, and thebes and restored temples damaged in the ‘amarna Period. At Karnak, Seti I completed his father’s plan to convert the area between the second and third pylons into a vast hypostyle hall. His son, ramesses ii, was coruler at the time, and he aided his father in the Karnak building. The vast hall arose with the roof supported by 134 sandstone columns, inscribed with reliefs. Seti I also built a temple in abydos, called “the House of Millions of Years of Menma’atre, Joyful in the Heart of Abydos.” He died before completing the cenotaph, now called the osireion, and Ramesses II finished the temple, endowing it for continued rituals.
The mummified head of Seti I, the second ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty, noted as a handsome warrior pharaoh.
The mummified head of Seti I, the second ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty, noted as a handsome warrior pharaoh.
Seti I’s tomb in the valley of the kings at Thebes is the largest one constructed there, dug some 300 feet into the cliffs. passages and elaborate columns were designed with painted reliefs, some using “the sun and shadow” style. An alabaster coffin was inscribed with the text of the topic of the Gates. An astronomical ceiling and more than 700 SHABTIS figures, made of stone, wood, and faience, were discovered in the tomb.
seti i’s mummified remains were found in the cache at deir el-bahri in 1881. He was a handsome elderly man, with good teeth and his heart still in his body. His wife was Queen tuya, and he had two sons. The eldest died young, leaving the throne to Ramesses II. His daughters, henutmire and tia (1), survived him.

Seti II (Userkheprure’setepenre) (d. 1204 b.c.e.)

Fifth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty

He reigned from 1214 b.c.e. until his death. Seti II was the son of merenptah and Queen isetnofret (2) and he married takhat (1), a daughter of ramesses ii. He also married twosret and possibly Tia’a. Seti II was the victim of a court plot and his throne was usurped temporarily by a relative, amenmesses, who ruled only a brief time. seti ii regained the throne and began building at karnak. He erected a sandstone station of the gods and colossal statues before he died. He had two sons, seti-Merenptah, who predeceased him, and Ramesses-siptah.
Seti Il’s tomb in the valley of the kings contained short passageways and a burial chamber with four pillars. He was buried in a red granite sarcophagus but was moved to the tomb of amenhotep ii, where he was discovered in the cache of royal mummies. His remains displayed cropped hair, good teeth, and an arthritic hip.

Setka (fl. 26th century b.c.e.)

Prince of the Fourth Dynasty

He was the son of ra’djedef (r. 2528-2520 b.c.e.) and probably Queen khentetka. Presumably the heir to Ra’ djedef’s throne, Setka was put aside for khafre, who was crowned as the successor. setka belonged to one side of khufu’s family and was possibly viewed as a usurper. Nothing is known of setka after Ra’djedef’s death. A statue of the prince, seated as a scribe, was found in Ra’ djedef’s pyramid in abu rowash.

Setna Khamwas (1) (fl. 13th century b.c.e.)

Prince of the Nineteenth Dynasty

He was a son of rameses ii (r. 1290-1224 b.c.e.). Setna Khamwas was the high priest of ptah and not the heir to the throne.
Setna Khamwas (2) He was a remarkable fictional character obviously based on the son of ramesses ii, setna khamwas (1), a prince of the Nineteenth Dynasty This fictional prince was the hero of an Egyptian ghost story discovered in a papyrus dating to the ptolemaic Period (340-30 b.c.e.). He supposedly sought the “topic of Thoth,” the legendary repository of occult knowledge, and found it in the tomb of another fictional character, prince Neferkaptah, in the Memphis necropolis.
when the topic was recovered, Neferkaptah appeared to setna Khamwas with his wife and son, ihwey. setna had to play a board game with Neferkaptah in order to earn ownership of the topic. Defeated three times and pounded into the ground, setna was freed by spells uttered by his brother, inaros. setna dreamed of a female demon named Tabubna as a result.
He and Prince Neferkaptah held lengthy discussions about the “topic of Thoth.” Neferkaptah had hunted for it during his lifetime and had found it at the bottom of the Nile near koptos. The text was in separate boxes, guarded by reptiles. setna realized that such knowledge was dangerous and better left hidden.


He was an ancient Egyptian demon depicted in scenes of the judgment halls of osiris in mortuary works. Called “the crusher of bones,” Set-Qesu carried out any punishments decreed by osiris and his fellow judges against the unworthy deceased.
Seven Hathors Divine beings who played the role of the Greek Fates in Egypt, they could tell the future and knew the moment of death for each Egyptian. Because a person’s destiny depended upon the hour of his or her birth or death and the luck or ill-fortune connected with it, the seven Hathors were believed to exchange any prince born under unfavorable auspices with a more fortunate child, thus protecting the dynasty and the nation. The Egyptians were greatly concerned with the lucky or unlucky fate of individuals.


The Egyptian name for the coastal area on the Red Sea, Sewew was opposite koptos on the wadi gasus and was the region of kuser, the active expeditionary port. The Egyptians used the regional resources of Sewew to maintain elaborate shipbuilding programs for expeditions to punt and other trade enterprises.


It was a site on sal island in Nubia (modern Sudan), where seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) fought the Irem people and founded a new administrative base for the viceroy of Nubia. Amenemope, the viceroy in that era, erected two stelae to commemorate Seti I’s victory. It contains rock inscriptions dating to the reign of montuhotep ii (2061-2010 b.c.e.). The inscriptions concern Montuhotep II and his mother, Queen aoh, the consort of inyotef iii of Thebes. The Shaat-er-Reqal text commemorates the campaign conducted by the pharaoh against wawat, a northern region of Nubia.

Shabaka (Neferkare) (d. 698 b.c.e.)

Founder of the Nubian Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, which ruled all of Egypt and Nubia

He reigned from 712 b.c.e. until his death. Shabaka was the son of the Nubian ruler kashta and Queen pebatma and was originally called sabacon. He ruled all of Egypt and nubia, succeeding piankhi (1). In his first years he had to put down rebels in Nubia and in the Delta. Shabaka captured bakenrenef (r. 717-712 b.c.e.) of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty at sais and burned him to death.
He ruled in memphis, making that ancient site the capital again, and restored the serapeum in saqqara.
Shebaka built at karnak and medinet habu. He also aided the temple sites in thebes, Memphis, abydos, den-derah, esna, and edfu. Shabaka encouraged the Palestinians in their revolt against syria. He urged the Egyptians to return to the worship of amun and the other deities.
He had two daughters and two sons, Haremakhet and Tanutamun. Haremakhet was made high priest of Amun in Thebes. Shabaka was buried at el-Kurru, south of gebel barkal between the third and fourth cataracts of the Nile in Nubia. He was succeeded on the throne of Egypt by shebitku, the son of Piankhi.

Shabaka Stone

This was a religious monument also called the Stela of memphis, one of the most important religious texts of the Late Period. The stone dates to the reign of shabaka (712-698 b.c.e.). He found a sacred papyrus concerning spiritual and creation themes being eaten by worms in a Memphis temple and had the text transferred to a basalt slab. The stone represents the doctrines of the temple of ptah. With the decline of Egypt, the shabaka stone was eventually lost, becoming a farmer’s millstone. It was recovered in the area of the former capital.

shabtis (shawabtis, ushabtis)

The ancient miniature tomb figures of Egypt, called “the Answerer,” these figures were part of the mortuary regalia, placed in tombs to act as proxies or substitutes for the deceased in tuat, the land beyond the grave. It was believed that the shabtis would perform any and all labors demanded of the deceased in the afterlife. seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) had 700 shabtis in his tomb sites.
These mortuary substitute figures were fashioned out of wood and then out of faience, metals, clay, or stone. Nobles and royals kept one figure in the tomb for each day of the year, plus one overseer shabti. The figures were usually inscribed with prayers urging the shabtis to assume all obligations assigned to the deceased. There is an undocumented connection between the persea tree and the shabti in Egyptian traditions. The tree was called a shawab. in some eras, the shabtis were buried in individual boxes with vaulted lids. scribe shabtis were found in some tombs.
The shabtis discovered in the burial chamber of King Tut'ankhamun and now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
The shabtis discovered in the burial chamber of King Tut’ankhamun and now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.


An ancient Egyptian irrigation device still in use on the Nile, introduced into the land by the hyksos, or Asiatic, invaders of the Second Intermediate Period (1640-1550 b.c.e.), the shaduf is a simple wooden instrument consisting of a pole with a bucket on one end and a weight on the other. The shaduf enabled a farmer, working alone, to raise water from the Nile and to deposit it in the appropriate canal or irrigation ditch. The use of the device after the Hyksos period increased Egypt’s agricultural output. scholars estimate that the shadufincreased cultivation by 10 percent. The device was just one of the many contributions made by the Hyksos during their occupation of the eastern Delta.
Shai she was an Egyptian goddess who determined the fate of individuals and events, associated with mortuary rituals and the judgment halls of osiris. Shai was part of the cult of renenet, the goddess of fortune. shai had powers over the living and the dead, and her name is translated as “what is ordained.” considered the guardian of shay, fate, Shai was one of the attendants of the scales upon which the goddess ma’at weighed the hearts of the deceased Egyptians in judgment.

Shalmaneser III (d. c. 828 b.c.e.)

Assyrian ruler who tried to conquer Egypt

He made attempts to begin an assault on the Nile Valley in the reigns of osorkon ii (883-855 b.c.e.) and takelot ii (860-835 b.c.e.). The son of Ashurnasirpal, Shalmaneser III reigned over the Assyrian empire from 858 b.c.e. until his death. He was militarily active and faced Egyptian cohorts on several occasions, as the Egyptians were part of confederations of Mediterranean countries determined to halt Assyrian advances. shalmaneser iii was victorious at the battle of Qarqar on the orontes River but was delayed as a result and died before he could enter the Nile valley.

Shat en Sebau

This was the ancient text called The topic of the Pylons, a mortuary work that was a version of the topic of the dead. The journey through tuat, the underworld, was the central theme of this mortuary text. See also tomb texts.

Shebitku (Djedkaure) (d. 690 b.c.e.)

Ruler of the Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynasty

He was the successor of his uncle, shabaka, and reigned 698-690 b.c.e. He was the son of piankhi (1) and Queen pekassater. Shebitku married amenirdis (1), a god’s wife of amun, or Divine Adoratrice of Amun, who retired from that office. His sister, shepenwepet (2), took her place as the God’s wife at Thebes.
shebitku sided with the palestinians and phoenicians (modern Lebanese) in their revolt against the Assyrians. He faced the Assyrian King Sennacherib (r. 704-681 b.c.e.) in battle as a result but kept Egypt secure. He left no major monuments but did build at medinet habu. when he died, his remains were taken to Napata, in nubia (modern Sudan). He was followed on the throne by his brother, taharqa.


This was a collar worn as an insignia of honor. Originally the collar was associated with the cult of osiris as a symbol of union with re and transformation in the afterlife. The pharaohs wore a shebyu of intricate design, and others wore modified versions. The collar was fashioned out of solid gold rings strung on five or more cords, with a clasp covered in gold and bearing the cartouche of the royal hieroglyphs or a spiritual admonition. smaller gold beads were strung on 14 smaller cords, sometimes tipped with metal bell-shaped ornaments. The dead pharaohs were depicted wearing the shebyu, although some wore it in life.

Shed (Hor-Shed)

He was an Egyptian deity called “the Savior,” the patron of deserts and the hunt. His cult originated in thinis, and he was depicted as a young prince, wearing the lock of youth. shed hunted serpents, scorpions, and crocodiles, thus serving as a pest controller. The god often appeared in a chariot drawn by two horses. He was sometimes called Hor-Shed, “the lord of deserts and heaven.”

She-dou (fl. c. 23rd century b.c.e.)

Priest of the Old Kingdom

She-dou’s tomb was discovered on the giza plateau. He described himself as a “servant of the goddess neith.” Four painted statues of she-dou were found in his tomb near the pyramids. He is depicted as wearing a white kilt and a wide collar with blue, yellow, and white stones.

Shedsunefertum (fl. 10th century b.c.e.)

Official of the Twenty-second Dynasty

He served shoshenq i (r. 945-924 b.c.e.) as high priest of ptah. Shedsunefertum was married to a princess of the Twenty-first Dynasty. The cult of ptah, one of the earliest in Egypt, was popular throughout the historical periods of Egypt, and the priests of ptah exerted considerable influence in the court.

Sheikh Abd’ el-Q urna (Quru)

It was a site on the western bank of the Nile at thebes, used as a necropolis area. Actually a long hill, sheikh Abd’ el-Qurna contained Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 b.c.e.) and New Kingdom (1550-1070 b.c.e.) tombs. The largest Theban necropolis, the site is northwest of the ramesseum and is divided into three sections. The most famous tombs belonged to dynastic officials, including nakht (2), a steward for tuthmosis IV (r. 1401-1391 b.c.e.). Nakht was also an astronomer of amun. His small tomb has a painted vestibule and a famous relief of a banquet scene, including the figure of a blind harpist.
The tomb of ‘Amethu, the vizier of tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) is also on this site, designed as a T-shaped enclosure halfway up the cliff. The tomb has a portico and a corridor. The tomb of Ramose is the burial site of the vizier serving amenhotep iii (r. 1391-1353 b.c.e.) and akhenaten (r. 1353-1335 b.c.e.). The tomb combines the traditional and ‘amarna styles and depicts Akhenaten and Queen nefertiti in reliefs. Unfinished, the site has a hypostyle hall with 32 columns and an inner hall with eight columns and a shrine. seti i (r. 1306-1290 b.c.e.) erected a temple on the site, honoring his father and several deities. A colonnaded court and solar cult chambers were part of this shrine, with a vestibule, sanctuary, and a bark of amun. The tomb of rekhmire, a vizier of tuthmosis iii (r. 1479-1425 b.c.e.) and amenhotep II (r. 1427-1401 b.c.e.) is also at Quru. unfinished, the site has valuable historical reliefs and texts concerning the duties of the vizier. punt figures are depicted in a hall near the entrance.

Sheikh Said

It was a site south of el-bersha in central Egypt. The region served as an old Kingdom (2575-2134 b.c.e.) necropolis for the local populace. nomarch tombs were discovered in sheikh said, which also served the territory of hatnub.


An Egyptian name for the Upper Kingdom, the southern portion of Egypt.

Shemay (fl. 22nd century b.c.e.)

Official of the Eighth Dynasty

Shemay served as the vizier for Upper Egypt. His son, idy, was the governor of the seven southernmost nomes. The father and son had to deal with the rising Ninth Dynasty and the inyotef line in Thebes.
Shemay probably served neferku-hor, listed in some records as the 14th ruler of the dynasty (date unknown). He married nebyet, a daughter of Neferku-Hor, and became a governor and then vizier.


An addition made to the PERO, or royal residence, in the Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1783 b.c.e.) era and repeated as an architectural design element in later historical periods, the shena was a structure designed to offer court servants housing and kitchen areas. The khenty, a similar structure designed to serve high-ranking officials, was also initiated in this dynastic period.


A kilt-like skirt worn by pharaohs and, in a modified form, by officials and commoners, the shendyt underwent fashionable changes, particularly in the New Kingdom (1550-1070 b.c.e.), forming a distinctive angular style. A central tab design was also used as a decoration.
shennu it was the cartouche used by the pharaohs to display their hieroglyphic royal names. The original symbol associated with this cartouche design was the shen, an insignia portraying the sun’s orbit. This was a long circle, elongating into an oval frame. The eternal powers of the god re were thus displayed, representing the patronage of that deity in each dynasty.

Shepenwepet (1) (fl. eighth century b.c.e.)

Princess of the Twenty-third Dynasty and a God’s Wife of Amun She was the daughter of osorkon iii (r. 777-749 b.c.e.) and Queen karaotjet and was given titles of religious power as the God’s wife of Amun, a Divine Adoratrice of Amun. Shepenwepet was also called the Consort of Hor, the prophetess of Amun, and the seeress of Montu. she “adopted” her successor, amenirdis (1), the sister of Piankhi (1) (750-712 b.c.e.). Her tomb chapel was erected in karnak.

Shepenwepet (2) (fl. seventh century b.c.e.)

Princess of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and a God’s Wife of Amun She was the sister of shebitku (r. 698-690 b.c.e.) and was “adopted” by amenirdis to be eligible for this role. In the reign of taharqa (690-664 b.c.e.), Shepenwepet “adopted” Amenirdis (2) but was forced in 656 psammatichus I (r. 664-610 b.c.e.) to place his daughter, nitocris (2), into the office, bypassing Amenirdis (2). Shepenwepet had a tomb at karnak.

Shepseskare (Ini) (d. 2419 b.c.e.)

Fourth ruler of the Fifth Dynasty

He reigned from 2426 b.c.e. until his death. He is also listed as Ini. Shepseskare was the successor of kakai (Neferirkare). He is not well known and his reign was brief. seal impressions bearing his name were found in abusir, where he started but did not complete a pyramidal tomb.

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