Chronology of Major Events

Egypt Near East and Mediterranean
3000 b.c.e.-2700 b.c.e.
Narmer captures Lower Egypt Sumerian cities flourish
‘Aha (Menes) founds Memphis Troy founded
Irrigation projects employed Towns in Syria and Palestine
Writing and calendar in use Malta megaliths erected
Royal tombs at Abydos and Saqqara Minoans build on Crete
Egypt fully united Gilgamesh at Uruk
2600 b.c.e.-2100 b.c.e.
Step Pyramid at Saqqara Megaliths appear in Europe
Pyramids at Giza Royal graves used in Ur
Nubian lands dominated Minoans open trade routes
Copper mines used in Sinai Ziggurat built at Sumer
Heliopolis powerful Re center
Pyramid Texts used
Expeditions sent to Punt
Pepi II reigns for almost a century
Coffin Texts adopted
2000 b.c.e.-1600 b.c.e.
Montuhotep II unifies Egypt Babylon a regional power
Deir el-Bahri becomes a shrine Greece occupied
Art and architecture revived Stonehenge erected
Tale of Sinuhe the Sailor introduced Sumer revitalized
Faiyum restored with hydraulics Hammurabi in Babylon
Forts in Nubia built to the third
cataract Persian empire begins
The Wall of the Prince guards Egypt’s
borders Knossus on Crete becomes a vast city
Hyksos begin incursions into Egypt
Karnak formed as a shrine
Avaris becomes Hyksos capital
1500 b.c.e.-1300 b.c.e.
Thebans oust Hyksos Hittites destroy Babylon
Tuthmosis I reaches Euphrates Minoan civilization collapses
Egypt Near East and Mediterranean
Valley of the Kings started Mitanni people are ascendant
Karnak embellished Myceneans establish citadels
Deir el-Bahri temples expanded Assyrians begin a recovery after
a time of decline
Akhenaten reigns at ‘Amarna
Thebes is the capital of Egypt
1200 b.c.e.-1000 b.c.e.
Ramessids regain lands lost in the
‘Amarna Period Babylon is restored after a time of decline
Abu Simbel is opened Sea Peoples destroy the power of the
Per-Ramesses becomes the capital The Iron Age commences in the
of Egypt Mediterranean
Treaty established with the Hittites
The Sea Peoples are defeated
The Egyptian Empire is eroded by
internal and external pressures
Amunite priests reach their ascendancy
Medinet Habu is completed
1000 b.c.e.-700 b.c.e.
Third Interim Period Phoenicians establish the city of Carthage
Egypt is divided between Tanis and Thebes Etruscans settle in the Italian Peninsula
Libya assumes control of Egypt Assyria collapses as the major power in the
Tigris-Euphrates region
Shoshenq  conducts campaigns
against the invaders Babylon regains its ancient power
Egypt is splintered The first Olympic Games are held in Greece
Nubians take control of part of Egypt
under the leadership of Piankhi Homer writes the Iliad
Assyrians assault the Nile
Egypt undergoes a cultural renaissance
600 b.c.e.-300 b.c.e.
Trade and commerce revived under Saites Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon
The Persian Empire conquers Egypt The Persian capital of Persepolis is founded
Egyptians briefly reclaim control The first war between Greece and Persia is
Persians reconquer Egypt Athens emerges as the chief political power
in Greece
Darius I of Persia codifies laws for Egypt Philosophy and art flourish in Greece
The last flowering of Egyptian art Rome begins its rise to power in the Italian
Alexander the Great enters Egypt during his
campaign against the Persian Empire Gauls sack Rome
Alexandria is founded by Alexander Alexander the Great becomes king of
the Great Macedon and conquers the Persian Empire
300 b.c.e.-30 b.c.e.
Rise of the Ptolemaic dynasty Rome and Carthage fight the Punic Wars,
leaving Rome master of the Mediterranean
A leap year is added to the calendar Rome conquers Greece
Manetho writes his history Pompey the Great campaigns in the East
Egypt Near East and Mediterranean
Eratosthenes, Archimedes, and Euclid
are in Egypt Rome conquers Gaul
The Ptolemaic Empire begins its
steady decline Julius Caesar defeats his rivals in the Roman
Civil War
The Rosetta Stone is erected Augustan Age begins with the birth of the
Roman Empire
Cleopatra VII ascends the throne and
begins the last reign of the Ptolemies
Julius Caesar comes to Alexandria
Antony and Cleopatra are defeated at the
Battle of Actium
Egypt falls to the legions of Octavian (Augustus)
The end of the Ptolemaic dynasty and beginning
of the Roman occupation of Egypt

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