method towards the validation of spatial relationships among 3D parcels, by iden-
tifying either correct or even incorrect topological relations in 3D. Furthermore,
geovisualisation aspects in 3D cadastre have been also tackled. Wang et al. ( 2012 )
have been working on the visualisation principles in 3D cadastres and investigated
which variables among visual variables are appropriate for geovisualisation of 3D
legal units in a 3D cadastre system. In 2011, van Oosterom et al. accomplished
a worldwide inventory of the status of 3D cadastres in 2010 and stated what the
expectations were for 2014.
Other authors have developed in turn relevant work on the extension of 3D GIS
to 3D cadastre. 3D GIS offers indeed some techniques that can be directly applied
in 3D cadastre—for instance, 3D GIS provides proper methods for the representa-
tion of geometry of 3D cadastral objects and to associate to them property rights,
semantics, and transaction attributes. Nevertheless, other techniques should be
improved in order to be able to deal with management operations within 3D land
administration. This is mainly because 3D GIS and 3D cadastre objects are dif-
ferent. For instance, Gröger and Plümer ( 2011b ) extended the axiomatic charac-
terization of 3D surfaces proposed by them (Gröger and Plümer 2011a ), which
guaranteed consistency between geometry and topology, to the case of “han-
dles” (e.g. tunnels, bridges, or arcades); by doing this, the authors closed the gap
between the global topological definition of handles in surfaces and the local defi-
nition of semantical handle objects in GIS. Frédéricque et al. ( 2011 ) presented a
benchmark exercise in which an architecture, combining both desktop GIS appli-
cations with server based RDBMS, was used to implement different scenarios
for a 3D Cadastre (full 3D and hybrid); results obtained by the authors illustrate
how possible it is to combine advanced CAD and GIS technologies to create and
update intelligent objects corresponding to both 3D urban features and 3D prop-
erty units. Ying et al. ( 2012 ) applied 3D GIS techniques to 3D cadastre in urban
environment as an attempt to build the bridge and fill the gap between urban simu-
lation and urban space management; details of such application were elaborated
through three main aspects: 3D data and 3D modelling, 3D simulations and 3D
visualisation, practice and decision-making support.
Furthermore, a remark should be done on the increasing prevalence of build-
ing information models (BIM). New technologies on BIM are continuously being
developed which means that we can expect to see very detailed building models
available in the planning stage. Consequently, these models appear to be useful to
generate 3D volumes for properties (Frédéricque et al. 2011 ; Smith 2012 ).
More recently, various pilot 3D cadastre systems have been developed and tested
for the specific cadastral context of some countries, like: Australia (Karki et al.
2011b ), Brazil (Barros-de-Souza 2011 ), China (Guo et al. 2011 ), Korea (Jeong et al.
2011 ), Malaysia (Abdul-Rahman et al. 2012 ), Russia (Vandysheva et al. 2011 ),
Singapore (Khoo 2012 ; Soon 2012 ), or The Netherlands (Stoter et al. 2011 , 2012b ).
Finally, as far as Portugal's cadastral context is concerned, Hespanha et al.
( 2006) worked on the evaluation of an initial FIG core cadastral model (Lemmen
et al. 2003 ) by applying it to Portugal's cadastre. Based on that previously pro-
posed standard, an object oriented, conceptual model for the cadastral domain was