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engineers coming from different domains, be replaced by autonomous objects?
How do one organize behaviour as part of objects? i.e. who is enhancing them
from dumb geometry entities to autonomous agents, and how can it be assured
they actually can communicate and understand each other. The idea is of course to
have a system, which can help avoiding design errors, being ahead of the situation,
and not creating additional problems.
A system which can avoid obvious design errors are shown to safe around 15 %
of the total construction costs (Lopez and Love 2011 ). A Ph.D. project elaborat-
ing on some of these issues mentioned here has been carried out as part of the
InfraWorld project. Since GMO's have agent like behaviour, the Ph.D. project
looked at the possibility of negotiations between agents and also at self-learning
functionality, which is an obvious technology to choose in an civil engineering
context (Faus and Grimaldo 2012 ; Faus et al. 2012 ).
3.4 Energy Monitoring System
This example was mainly developed to show the potential of the GMO concept used
for monitoring features, which can react due to sensors attached or show dynamic
behaviour due to other external influences. In this case selected buildings in the
model are monitored with regards to their energy consumption. With comparison to
the online taxi scenario, it unfortunately was not possible to retrieve the energy con-
sumption data with an online setup due to legal concerns. The energy consumption
was represented by a dataset of sampled data during the year of 2010.
In the model one can click on a building as one can do with all GMO's in the
model to evoke a window, if such is relevant to the object, which allows one to
interact with the GMO, see Fig. 5 .
Buildings in Fig. 5 appear with different colours indicating the energy con-
sumption level going from dark green indicating a relatively low consumption to
dark red indicating a relatively large consumption. In the window one can observe
the energy consumption due to a specific day of the year. Since we have sampled
data for the year of 2010, these dates are available in the model. Another feature
build in, is the possibility to apply solar panels and solar collectors respectively
producing electricity and heating water. Choosing a certain number of collectors
or panels in the menu, will accordingly create an amount of panels and collectors
placed on the roof of the building, and also carry out a recalculation of the overall
energy consumption, see Fig. 6 .
Here 40 solar panels have been applied and a yearly saving of 10.400 NOK is
indicated (blue text). Although the saving is evident the building is not changing
colour yet since the saving still is not significant to provoke any changes. The solar
panels are now fixed to the building, and other clients retrieving the model from
the database will likewise see the panels showing up as well, as being able to inter-
act with the model changing the amount further. Of course this kind of possible
client access needs a strict organization around the design.
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