78. For a well-known discussion that comes to a similar conclusion, see James
Lovelock, The Revenge of Gaia: Earth's Climate Crisis & the Fate of Humanity
(New York: Basic Books, 2006). For a more recent, exemplary treatment that
reaches conclusions similar to those outlined in the present chapter, see Clive
Hamilton, Requiem for a Species: Why We Resist the Truth about Climate Change
(Washington, DC: Earthscan, 2010), 1-31.
79. Bill McKibben, “Global Warming's Terrifying New Math,” Rolling Stone ,
July 19, 2012, htp://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/global-warmings-
terrifying-new-math-20120719. On the second page of this article, he writes,
“Scientists estimate that humans can pour roughly 565 more gigatons of
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by midcentury and still have some
reasonable hope of staying below two degrees.” But if the two-degree
target is already too high, as McKibben suggests, this carbon budget is too
generous as well.
80. Susan Solomon and others, “Irreversible Climate Change Due to Carbon
Dioxide Emissions,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America , volume 106, number 6 (February 10, 2009), 1704-1709,
81. For a helpful discussion of these and other geoengineering schemes, see
Parkinson, Coming Climate Crisis? , 165-191.
82. Wallace S. Broecker and Robert Kunzig, Fixing Climate: What Past Climate
Changes Reveal About the Current Threat—And How to Counter It (New York:
Hill and Wang, 2008), 186-233.
83. For a representative discussion of the possibility of abrupt climate change,
see R ichard Alley, The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate
Change, and Our Future (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).
84. Gore, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and
What We Can Do About It (Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale, 2006), 276.