Geoscience Reference
In-Depth Information
32. Justin Gillis, “With Deaths of Forests, a Loss of Key Climate Protectors,”
New York Times , October 1, 2011, ht p://w w w.ny
33. Chris D. Thomas and others, “Extinction R isk from Climate Change,”
Nature 427 ( January 8, 2004), 145-148, doi:10.1038/nature02121. For a
lucid meditation on the implications of these findings, see Mark Lynas, Six
Degrees , 115-119. The recent, smaller study surprisingly finds that taxonomic
groups (rather than species) migrate at an average rate matching the shifts in
temperature, significantly complicating the picture; see I-Ching Chen and
others (including Chris Thomas), “Rapid Range Shifts of Species Associated
with High Levels of Climate Warming,” Science 333 (August 19, 2011), 1024-
26, doi:10.1126/science.1206432. For a general guide to climate change's
effect on ecosystems, see Robert Henson, The Rough Guide to Climate Change
(London: Rough Guides, 2006).
34. For a report on recent research on the consequences of ocean acidification,
see R ichard Kerr, “Ocean Acidiication Unprecedented, Unsetling,” Science ,
volume 328, number 5985 ( June 18, 2010), 1500-1501, doi:10.1126/
science.328.5985.1500, which emphasizes the toll that acidification will
take on a wide range of marine organisms. On ocean acidification and the
coccolithophores, see Jacqueline Rutiman, “Sick Seas,” Nature 442 (August
31, 2006), 978-980, doi:10.1038/442978a; and Dalin Shi and others, “Effect
of Ocean Acidification on Iron Availability to Marine Phytoplankton,”
Science , volume 327, number 5966 (February 5, 2010), 676-679, doi:10.1126/
s c ie nc e .118 3517.
35. Andy R idgwell and Daniela N. Schmidt, “Past constraints on the
vulnerability of marine calcifiers to massive carbon dioxide release,” Nature
Geoscience volume 3, number 3 (March 2010), 196-200, doi:10.1038/
ngeo745; and Daniel G. Boyce, Marlon R. Lewis, and Boris Worm, “Global
phytoplankton decline over the past century,” Nature 466 ( July 29, 2010),
591-596, doi:10.1038/nature09268.
36. R ichard Black, “World's oceans in 'shocking' decline,” BBC News, June 20,
2011, htp://; see the
International Programme on the State of the Ocean website for reports and
updates at htp://
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