Geoscience Reference
In-Depth Information
Finally, ISO-Space 16 is a spatio-temporal information markup language in texts.
This language mainly integrates tags used for describing movement: the <MOTION>
tag allows us to describe a change of places, for example. Temporal information markup languages
Concerning temporal information, the most widely employed textual modeling
language is TIMEX3. It allows the association of numeric representations with
temporal information in the standardized ISO-8601 [MAN 03] format with, for
example, tags for beginning and end of duration.
There is also an equivalent to SpatialML: TimeML 17 [PUS 03, PUS 05]. TimeML
uses TIMEX3 for the markup of temporal data. It tags temporal relations but only
associates them with symbolic representations. Listing 2.3 illustrates the TimeML
code of the representation of “beginning of January 2010”. As we can see, the date
“January 2010” has been identified and a numeric representation has been associated
with it; the temporal relation of inclusion (beginning relation type) has also been
identified and described, however it does not have an associated numeric
1 <SIGNAL sid="s1">beginning </SIGNAL>
3<TIMEX3t i d="t 1"t ype="DAE"val ue="2010−01">
5</ IMEX3>
6 <TLINK eventInstanceID="ei1" relatedToTime="t1" signalID="s1"
reltype ="BEGINS"/>
Listing 2.3. Example of TimeML markup of (beginning of January 2010)
ISO-TimeML 18 [PUS 10], first designed for English and then adapted to other
languages such as Italian, Chinese and Korean, is a recent proposal that integrates
TimeML for a standardized annotation of time and events.
tag and describe, spatial and temporal information in texts. Numeric representations
are associated with places and dates whereas symbolic representations describe the
detected spatial and temporal relations. In the following section, we briefly present
the main pieces of work relative to reasoning on spatial and temporal relations.
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