Image Processing Reference
between I 0 p and I 1 p . I 0 p and I 1 p are ST images. Th p is the threshold. p is one of x and y that repres-
ent the X -direction motion and Y -direction motion. This similarity measure is scalar.
Equation (7) is the formal definition of NABD. SD is a standard derivation over the video V .
merator are placed reverse order from a normal position. This implements the negation.
5 Experiments on baseball games and evaluations
5.1 Baseball Game
This paper treats baseball game MPEG videos. In baseball games, players' uniforms change
between half innings. The pitch is the most frequent play in a baseball game. There is a large
number of pitches. This paper uses a single play of a pitch as a template. Using this template,
the proposed method retrieves large number of pitches using similar motion retrieval.
Motion based similar video retrieval can find many types of plays based on the template. A
few repeated plays are not pitches. This paper distinguishes a pitch and other plays.
5.2 Experimental Objects
This paper uses a whole baseball game for experiments. The game is 79 min, 132485 frames
in a video. In the game, there are right-hand pitchers and a left-hand pitcher. There are 168
pitches. 31648 frames represent the camera works that catch the pitching scenes.
5.3 Experiment Process
The experimental videos are recorded from Japanese analog TV to DVD. Then, the recorded
videos are reduced into 320 × 240 pixels and encoded MPEG1 format. Most plays of pitches
are very short. Therefore, there is no reduction on time direction. There are 30 frames in 1S.
There are all parts, including telops, sportscasters, and computer graphics. The first step of
our experiment is the extraction of motion compensation vectors. The motion compensation
vector is at each 16 × 16 pixel blocks. In every motion compensation block, we have a motion
compensation vector. The similar play retrieval in motion frames uses a continuous sequence
of frames as a template and retrieves the shots, including pitches of a video.
5.4 Correlation-Based Similarity Measure in Pitching Retrieval
In this experiment, we use template pitches. The pitches include the pitch shows the best per-
formance in our previous work. Around the pitch, we search the best length and the starting