1911 The Qing Dynasty collapses, and a weak and fragmented Nationalist government takes
over the Republic of China.
1921 The Chinese Communist Party is founded in Shanghai; Mao Zedong attends the meet-
1923 The Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building opens on the Bund.
1931-41 Shanghai becomes a safe haven for some 20,000 Jews fleeing persecution in
1931-2 Japan bombs and invades Shanghai, but withdraws under the weight of international
A Chinese machine-gun crew in 1937
Mary Evans Picture Library