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mobile devices, which can rely on large readily accessible datasets on user's
history of interaction, enabling clever behaviours in ubiquitous applications.
3.4 High-resolution displays
As vision is our main sense, disappearing devices must rely on sharp and rich
visualization displays. If information is to be shown on low-quality displays,
most of our attention will focus on recovering contents from its poor represent-
ation. Latest flat screen technology offers today a wide array of visualization
devices, some of which combined with precise gesture-based interfaces.
Another rapidly developing technology with a large application potential
to disappearing devices is based on organic light-emitting devices (OLED).
OLED displays will enable brilliant, low-power, low-cost and flexible displays
that can be moulded around the most disparate objects, from textiles, to toys, to
home furniture and fixtures, walls and surfaces of all kinds and shapes. Thin-
film displays that can be wrapped around things or transparent ones to lay over
windows or even printed over T-shirts are new application scenarios.
Plastic electronics based on conducting polymers will enable, in general,
a whole new set of devices that can be seamlessly embedded on everyday
objects. In 2000, the 1970's discovery of conducting polymers earned a
Nobel Prize for chemistry to Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmind and
Hideki Shirakawa.
4
Building ubiquitous systems
Two main approaches are followed to build ubiquitous systems: (i)
infrastructure-based systems that are associated to a particular physical
environment and (ii) personal systems that are instead user-centric and also
include mobile and wearable systems . In both cases, new interaction
modalities that include dialogue handling and gesture control are a need for
enabling direct and natural interaction with the users [12]. In the following
two subsections, details will be given on the two approaches discussed.
4.1 Infrastructure-based systems
Developed by Intel, a Personal Server [13] is a mobile device that uses
existing computing infrastructures such as PDAs or smartphones to interact
with a user's personal data; it does not show information on a display of its
own, but rather relies on wireless connection to either large, wall-mounted
displays or screens and keyboards of neighbouring PCs that are readily
available in the environment.
 
 
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