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As regards adaptation, users are inured to harsh synthetic voice of TTS
systems, while ASR ones have to adapt to any voice. Nowadays, ASR
systems require the users to modify their speech using pauses and speaking
slowly [11].
3.2 Behavioural processing
Behavioural processing is focused on two data input modalities: keyboard and
mouse. Besides being used to have direct interaction with the system, these
devices can provide useful information to know the user's cognitive status. Such
knowledge is built by tracing both key pressing and mouse positions or actions.
One can devise two main categories in mouse motion data: gestures and
clicks. Gestures are mouse motions that do not give rise to clicks, like giving
the focus to a GUI element. In general, they are not related to particular
functions but they can provide information about the objects the user is
processing even if no explicit action is performed.
Three main features define all clicks: velocity, strength of the click and
motion readiness towards clicked objects. All these features indicate the
degree of excitement, indecision and confusion.
3.3 Cognitive comprehension
This module consists of a cognitive model and a model tracing function. A
cognitive model is intended to carry on tasks in a similar way as humans do.
The module builds a detailed map of the interpreted motion data in terms
of couples {motion, emotional state}.
Integration of sub-symbolic emotion parameters in a cognitive model is a
very important scientific result that can be applied to different operational
contexts (i.e. simulations of real-time systems) to trace changes in human
performance over time. Cognitive models could be very important tools for
the designers of such systems. The tracing process can be helped a lot by
mouse gestures, eye data and information about the emotional status.
Basically, emotions can be integrated in a cognitive model in three ways.
Emotions can be regarded as modifiers of the model's parameters, while
producing simple changes in behaviour. As an example, fatigue can diminish
human elaboration speed that is thinking readiness. In the same way, confusion
or being sad can be regarded as a noise parameter in the decision process.
Emotions can influence the core structure in the cognitive model. People
who are fatigued, sad or confused can completely change the way of thinking
about the task they are involved and use different strategies to carry them on.
Finally, one can devise a hybrid framework mixing both the previous
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