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bandwidth and the graphic devices (touch screens, virtual or augmented
reality and so on).
Nowadays, the research in the field of HCI is oriented towards the use
of computers inside a workgroup, the so-called Computer Supported Co-
operative Work (CSCW), media integration and 'multimodal interfaces', and
the effects of new technologies in working and domestic environments.
Implicit and explicit HCI
2.1 Implicit and explicit HCI: a comparison
When considering current computer technology, interaction is explicit:
commands are issued to the computer using a particular abstraction level
(command prompt, GUI, gestures, and written or spoken natural
language). In implicit interaction, the user performs an action that is not
intended to be a computer command, but it is 'interpreted' by the machine
as an input.
Implicit interaction relies on the computer's ability to understand human
behaviour in a specified context. Let us consider as an example a computer-
ized trash can that is able to read bar codes of the items the user throws away
and suggest the shopping list accordingly.
The user performs a simple action that would be the same regardless of
the garbage can. Moreover, the user does not interact with computer that is
embedded in a particular can, so the whole process describes an implicit
interaction. The example points out that implicit interaction is based on two
main concepts:
perception and
In general, implicit interaction is used in addition to the explicit one.
Three main concepts can be devised that facilitate implicit interaction:
the user's ability to perceive the usage, the environment and the circum-
some mechanisms to understand sensors percepts and
some applications that are able to use such information [2].
2.2 Implicit HCI
In human communication, most of the information is exchanged implicitly.
Often, implicit contextual information like posture, gestures and voice intona-
tion ensure the robustness in man-to-man communication. Moreover, body and
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