Environmental Engineering Reference

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the quantitative relation shows almost direct relation of both the parameters. The

correlation coeficient
r
2
is 0.2853 which amounts to 53 %.

The above mentioned qualitative and quantitative relationship between longitu-

dinal unit conductance (
S
) and hydrochemical parameters of Cl, SAR, EC, TDS, Ca,

Na, NO
3
illustrate significant relationship between the geophysical parameter, lon-

gitudinal unit conductance and various hydrochemical parameters.

The correlation can be improved to further levels of better significance if the

geophysical data is collected exactly at the same spot from where the water samples

were collected from bore wells for chemical quality analysis. However, in the pres-

ent studies the correlation coefficients for the various parameters are all above 60 %,

hence it is possible to estimate the chemical quality parameter by just carrying out

simple Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) at many sites and by conducting water

quality analysis at few sites.

Geophysical surveys can be conducted in short field seasons and are appreciably

cost effective compared to the expenditure in detailed water quality analysis in any

study area. The qualitative and quantitative results shown in the correlation patterns

and correlation graphs clearly illustrate the geophysical expression of water

quality.

Conclusions

In the contour map the parameters of
S
and TDS have shown significant direct rela-

tion, the correlation coefficient
r
2
is 0.5274 which amounts to 73 %. In the eastern

region the contours of high longitudinal unit conductance match well with contours

of higher values of total hardness. Similarly in the western region low values of

contours of
S
match significantly with lower values of contours of total hardness.

The correlation coeficient
r
2
is 0.4025 which amounts to 64 %. Contours showing

higher values of Na match remarkably with contours showing higher values longi-

tudinal unit conductance in space. The correlation coefficient of
r
2
is 0.3236 which

amounts to 57 %. High level contours of longitudinal unit conductance match well

with high level contours of calcium and vice-versa. Hence, there is direct qualitative

relationship between
S
and calcium, the correlation coefficient
r
2
is 0.3709 and

shows significant quantitative relationship between
S
and calcium which amounts to

61 %. Specific conductance increases with increase in the values of
S
and vice-

versa. The correlation coefficient
r
2
which is 0.4294 amounts to 66 % which is sig-

nificant. There is a complete match between the patterns of contours
S
and Cl. The

qualitative relation of the
S
and chloride is almost direct. The correlation coefficient

r
2
is 0.4688 which amounts to 68 %. The qualitative and quantitative relationship

between longitudinal unit conductance (
S
) and hydrochemical parameters of Cl,

SAR, EC, TDS, Ca, Na and NO
3
illustrate significant relationship.

In present study the correlation coefficients for the various parameters are all

above 60 %, hence it is possible to estimate the chemical quality parameter by just

carrying out simple vertical electrical soundings (VES) at many sites and by con-

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