Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Research Methodology
As per the objective of our present investigation, wastewater was collected from a
nearby wastewater body, Hindon river. Water sampling was carried out according to
standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (APHA 2005 ).
The representative samples were fi ltered through a plastic sieve of pore opening
size 0.5 mm. Thereafter the required quantity of wastewater samples were transferred
into pre-washed “synthetic polyvinyl” culture containers of capacity 90 l each.
Adequate individual Eichhornia crassipes plants were collected from sampling sta-
tion in black coloured polyethylene bags. In order to explore the effect of different
pH ranges on Eichhornia biomass production, it was decided to carry out an experi-
ment under variable pH ranges. Acidic and basic pH was adjusted with 30 % liquid
hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide respectively. Periodic maintenance of pH
was carried out after every 24 h. Total of 12 polyvinyl culture containers were used
on the basis of different pH ranges in order to carry out study in duplicates.
Accordingly, the wastewater sample was differentiated into a six pH range viz.
Treatment Culture No. 1 (T-1): pH=5, Treatment Culture No. 2 (T-2): pH=6,
Treatment Culture No. 3 (T-3): pH=7, Treatment Culture No. 4 (T-4): pH=8,
Treatment Culture No. 5 (T-5): pH = 9 and culture container C-1 contained wastewa-
ter with actual pH (7.6) of Hindon river on initial day. As per the literature, it was
confi rmed that under optimal conditions, Eichhornia crassipes can potentially dou-
ble its biomass in 2-3 weeks (Carignan et al. 1994 ). Hence, all the culture contain-
ers with the duplicates were placed strategically under careful observation for 20
days. In order to provide identical environmental conditions, an open fi eld provid-
ing 10 h of uninterrupted light period was selected. All the culture containers were
placed inside a 10 ft large polyhouse jacket in order to protect the cultures from any
external injuries or disturbances.
For the purpose of nutrient analysis and measuring biomass, all the cultures were
placed in periodical sequence. Representative samples from each culture were esti-
mated for DO, BOD, COD, sulphate, phosphate and total-nitrogen on initial day
and fi nal day using standard methods of estimation as outlined in APHA ( 2005 ).
Water samples were fi ltered through Whatman GF/C fi lters before analysis. Water
loss by evapotranspiration during the wastewater culture study was adjusted by
single distilled water from time to time.
Results and Discussion
In order to assess the suitability of Eichhornia crassipes for biomass production,
wastewater sample was collected from Hindon river and analyzed for some impor-
tant physicochemical properties. The physicochemical properties of Hindon river
wastewater refl ect a clear picture about the suitability of its use for Eichhornia bio-
mass production except the higher concentration of some nutrients. In the present
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