Environmental Engineering Reference
5. IWRM may necessitate working at different spatial scales and a basin may
present itself as one of several possible options as an appropriate unit of
analysis for water, soil and waste resources.
6. Decentralization necessitates engaging with issues of accountability in alloca-
financial and human resources within the public sector, notably inter-
to agriculture, water
and public health
7. Participation necessitates engaging with consumers to ascertain their views on
reliability, affordability and adequacy of environmental services; for example
by ascertaining the cost of infrastructure investments in
fields of water, waste
and soil management.
financing has proven useful in enhancing accountability of public
sector decision-making with regard to social infrastructure (schools and health).
9. Economic incentives such as budget support, cash conditional transfers, cash on
demand and output-based aid will result in improvements in service delivery
10. The development of capacity for trans-disciplinary approaches to planning and
environmental management may enhance prospects for successful design,
implementation and evaluation of results-based
financing strategies in devel-
opment programmes and projects.
5.4 The Logic and Structure of This Volume
This volume is focused on elaborating upon key themes of the nexus approach to
management of environmental resources
water, soil and waste. The topic is based
on papers and discussions surrounding the international kick-off workshop of the
UNU-FLORES institute that was held in Dresden, Germany in November, 2013.
The antecedents of the current interest in the nexus approach can be traced back to a
workshop held in 1986 in New Delhi, the focus of which was on the nexus of water,
energy and food. This topic places that discussion in the context of current chal-
lenges surrounding global change: demographic change, urbanization and climate
Governance approaches and perspectives have received very little attention in
relation to the nexus of water, energy and food or the nexus of water, soil and
waste. This is a serious shortcoming that this volume attempts to address by pro-
viding a framework for discussion of key science-policy challenges confronting
decision-makers globally. From an institutional point of view the nexus approach to
environmental governance can be examined from the perspective of: (a) Global
change and nexus approach to environmental governance, (b) Financing of infra-
structure projects and (c) Strategies for implementation.
to environmental governance. Concepts of P-E nexus, adaptive management,