Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Fig. 5 Hyperspectral remote sensing measurement of water quality, a turbidity, b chlorophyll and
c ratio non-volatile suspended solids and total suspended solids of a lake connected to the
Mississippi River. Source Olmanson et al. ( 2013 )
(Shi et al. 2014 ), vegetation (Kokaly et al. 2009 ), minerals (Viscarra Rossel et al.
2009 ; Van der Meer et al. 2012 ), erosion (Vrieling 2006 ), or water quality [Ji et al.
2010 ; Olmanson et al. 2013 (Fig. 5 )], and is helpful for ground truthing.
2.4 Monitoring
Environmental monitoring means the systematic collection of point data of water
quantity and quality variables according to a de
ned sampling strategy and a (more or
less) de
ned schedule, usually with the aim to document trends in the availability and/
or quality of environmental resources or ecosystem health in general. Ground-based
monitoring can be complemented and to some extent preplaced by quasi-continuous
data as outlined above. The general concern for any monitoring programme is to
assure that accurate and reliable data are routinely collected and updated.
Nexus governance
or any management of environmental resources relies on
such reliable and sustained monitoring programmes with an
spatial and
temporal resolution and coverage. The de
nition of an adequate spatial and tem-
poral resolution is far from trivial and depends on the monitored resource as well as
on the speci
and ultimately on available resources to perform the
monitoring. For example soil properties of a speci
c environment
c region may not change much
for many years under
conditions and under less exploitative land-use (e.g.
forestry). However, plot-scale, single extreme events, which may cause heavy
erosion, can have a big impact. Water quantity and quality is generally much more
variable than soil properties both on a temporal (seasonally, but also concerning
annual variability) and on a spatial scale (depending on land-use, geology, etc.).
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