Environmental Engineering Reference
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The whole progress can take a long time. In order to plan this process, a strategic
plan should be developed (Scheierling et al. 2010 ):
Multi-barrier approach (Faruqui et al. 2004 ; WHO 2006b ; Scheierling et al.
2010 ; USEPA 2012 )
From an end-of-pipe to a source approach (Bahri 2009 )
Reduction of environmental contamination through source separation and
moving towards separate treatment of industrial ef
uent (Buechler et al. 2006 ;
Bahri 2009 ; Scheierling et al. 2010 ; Kurian et al. 2013 )
Opening up the perspective and aiming at integrated approaches
Using a multisectoral approach involving various governmental agencies and
institutions work on issues related to wastewater reuse (Buechler et al. 2006 ;
Scheierling et al. 2010 ; Kurian and Ardakanian 2013 )
Move from a focus on wastewater regulation and treatment towards one in
which treatment and non-treatment options are combined to reduce health risks
(Buechler et al. 2006 ; Bahri 2009 )
Multi-purpose approach based on the perception of wastewater as a valuable
resource (c.f. Pearce 2008 ; USEPA 2012 ). Some authors even call for a para-
digm shift in wastewater treatment and reuse (Bahri 2009 ; Scheierling et al.
2010 )
Promoting stakeholder participation and social acceptance
Involve all stakeholders from the start in water reuse operations and ensure
multi-stakeholder platforms to facilitate dialogue, participatory technology
development, innovation uptake and social learning (Bahri 2009 )
Particular focus on practitioners, especially wastewater using farmers (Buechler
et al. 2006 ; Adjaye-Gbewonyo 2008 ; Scheierling et al. 2010 )
Involvement of private sector institutions (Scheierling et al. 2010 )
Awareness creation from farm to fork (Bahri 2009 )
Annex 5 Organizational Stakeholders in Wastewater Reuse (Focus
on Brazil)
In general, the following stakeholders are typically involved in the management of
wastewater reuse schemes (Mateo-Sagasta et al. 2013 ):
Ministries of Agriculture, Water Resources, Health, the Environment, Energy
and Development
Research institutions and universities
Non-governmental institutions and organizations
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