Environmental Engineering Reference
Typical wastewater irrigation objectives of countries by level of economic
Objective 1: Minimize
risk to public health
Source: Scheierling et al. ( 2010 : 75)
Moreover, as there are many potential stakeholders for wastewater irrigation, it is
obvious that there is a wide range of priorities depending on who is asked. Priorities
for planners and decision-makers participating in an international workshop on
wastewater reuse are summarized in Mateo-Sagasta et al. ( 2013 ). Farmers
ties, too, have been addressed in some publications (c.f. Kauvala 2007 ; Adjaye-
Gbewonyo 2008 ; Weckenbrock 2010 ). In the following, the focus is on priorities as
perceived by researchers on wastewater irrigation and large organizations like the
A main emphasis of many recent publications, which is also reflected in the
latest version of the WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, is on a
stepwise approach (WHO 2006b ; USEPA 2012 ).
It is important always to consider
the alternative to this step-wise approach, which may be inaction if standards are set
too high and cannot be achieved in a reasonable period of time
(Scheierling et al.
2010 : 50).
Reduction of public health and environmental risks
Moving from unplanned to planned wastewater reuse
Gradual, stepwise improvements