Environmental Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
3.3.1 Vegetables
The fact that vegetables are a main wastewater-irrigated crop type is likely due to
the fact that wastewater irrigation usually takes place in close proximity to cities
where high demand for fresh produce, proximity to markets and the availability of
(waste)water for irrigation represent favourable conditions for their production.
Being labour intensive, vegetable production and marketing offer employment
opportunities for many people, often from low-income groups (Buechler et al.
2006 ). The value created per area is high. However, those bene
ting from high
revenues are not always the same as those who are exposed to the risks of working
in close contact with wastewater irrigated soils and crops (Weckenbrock 2010 ).
With regard to vegetable types, a great variety can be found in wastewater-
irrigated plots (compare Table 1 ).
Table 1 Selected case studies on crops irrigated with (treated and untreated) wastewater
Crops cultivated with wastewater
Brazil, Fortaleza
Bananas, sugarcane
da Costa e Silva et al.
( 2002 )
Brazil, Aquiraz (CearĂ¡) Watermelon
de Lima Rego et al.
( 2005 )
Ethiopia, Addis Abeba
Vegetables (lettuce, swiss chard, cabbage,
spring onion, potato, beat root, etc.).
Bahri et al. ( 2008 )
India, Hubli-Dharwad
Vegetables, fodder crops, cereals, trees,
Bradford et al.
( 2003 ), Hunshal
et al. ( 1997 )
India, Hyderabad and
Karimnagar (Andhra
Fodder grass, rice, vegetables
Amerasinghe et al.
( 2009 ), Kurian et al.
( 2013 )
Iran, Mashad plain
Wheat, barley (also as fodder crops),
Monem ( 2013 )
Mexico, Mezquital
Valley (Hidalgo)
Mainly fodder crops and maize
Siebe ( 2013 )
Morocco, Settat (Cha-
Wheat, maize, fodder crops, potatoes,
Larbi ( 2013 )
Pakistan, Faisalabad
Fodder, vegetables, cereals, sugarcane,
other crops
Ensink et al. ( 2004a ),
Weckenbrock ( 2010 )
Peru, Lima
Moscoso Cavallini
( 2013 )
Peru, Lima
Sweet potatoes, salad, cabbage, tomatoes,
onions, potatoes, garlic, bananas, avoca-
dos, other crops
Espiritu Limay
( 2013 )
Philippines, Lian
Sugarcane (for biofuel production)
Sandoval et al.
( 2013 )
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