Environmental Engineering Reference
associated with landfill emissions. Many of the regulations discussed below apply to currently
operating or recently closed landfills and may not be appropriate for landfills that stopped
receiving wastes prior to 1987. It is important that personnel know the regulatory framework
under which the LFG control is being done (e.g., Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation, RCRA Corrective Action, etc.) in
order to determine which, if any of the following requirements must be met.
The discussion of applicable regulations and legal requirements in this section is only
meant to make the reader aware of some of the many requirements that may potentially apply
to landfill gas emissions and disposal of condensate. This chapter is not intended to stand in
place of any applicable law, regulation, or standard and may not reflect the current standards
embodied in law and regulation. Statutes and regulations are the controlling rule of law and
should always be consulted to determine how they apply to a particular set of circumstances
to assure compliance before action is taken.
Regulations affecting LFG management are addressed under various legislations
Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC
The RCRA which regulates solid and hazardous waste management such as the
The CAA which regulates air emissions.
The CWA which regulates discharges of water such as LFG condensate and storm
A brief summary of these regulations applicable is presented in the following section.
A. U Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC
The EU Landfill Directive [1999/31/EC] became law on 16 July 1999 after a protracted
drafting process. It was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities on the
16th July 1999. Member States were required to bring into force the laws, regulations and
administrative provisions necessary to comply with the Landfill Directive not later than two
years after its entry into force i.e. the 16th July 2001.
The aim of the Directive is "by way of stringent operational and technical requirements
on the waste and landfills, to provide for measures, procedures and guidance to prevent, or
reduce as far as possible, negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of
surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the
greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from landfilling of waste,
during the whole life-cycle of the landfill." (Waste Landfill Directive, 1999)
The Landfill Directive sets requirements for the authorization, design, operation, closure
and aftercare of landfills. The reduction of the biodegradable fraction of municipal waste
going for landfill disposal is given specific targets in the Landfill Directive. Some wastes may
no longer be accepted in landfills and only wastes that fulfill certain acceptance criteria may
be disposed of in the appropriate class of landfill. In addition to the Landfill Directive, the