Biomedical Engineering Reference
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veloped to create hydrogel scaffolds with excellent cell-adhesion properties
and cell-mediated degradation profiles. Exciting new materials and strategies
for in situ gelation of scaffold precursors have recently been formulated to
enable minimally invasive application of materials to tissue defects. The ap-
plication of stem cells, both adult and embryonic, to tissue repair strategies
has made an impact in musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Preliminary re-
sults on differentiation of MSCs and ES cells into musculoskeletal lineages are
very encouraging, thus pointing towards possible alternative sources of cells
for tissue engineering. Future clinical practice for the treatment of muscu-
loskeletal tissue loss will change and improve as these new technologies in
biomaterial hydrogels and alternative cell sources are translated.
Acknowledgements We acknowledge Gaurav Arya (Department of Chemistry and
Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University) for valuable discus-
sions. We also acknowledge financial support from the Whitaker Foundation and an
arthritis investigator award from the Arthritis Foundation and Johns Hopkins University.
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