Biomedical Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Tabl e 8. 1
NMR system miniaturization efforts
Transceiver integration
Small magnet
On-chip coil
Our 2-kg portable system
O receiver; pulse generator
O 1.25 kg
Our palm NMR system
O receiver; transmitter
O 0.07 kg
Our 1-chip NMR system
O receiver; transmitter
O 1.25 kg
O
[ 11 ]
O1.25kg
[ 12 ]
O2.5kg
[ 13 ]
O receiver
O
[ 14 ]
O LNA
O
[ 15 ]
O LNA
[ 16 ]
O LNA; PA
[ 17 ]
O LNA
The reduction in T 2 indicates the existence of cancer cells. The concentration
detection threshold is 17.5 cells per L.
8.5
Comparison to Other Miniaturization Works
Before concluding, we compare our miniature NMR systems to other NMR system
miniaturization efforts [ 11 - 17 ].AsshowninTable 8.1 , other works use small
magnets [ 11 , 12 ] or integrated transceivers [ 13 - 17 ], but not both as we did.
In addition, the integrated transceivers used in [ 13 - 17 ] have integration levels
considerably lower than ours. Overall, in terms of the entire system dimension and
integration level, our miniature NMR systems represent a meaningful advance from
previous miniaturization efforts.
8.6
Conclusion
By combining the physics of NMR with silicon RF integrated circuits, we developed
three miniature NMR systems for biomolecular sensing ultimately aimed at disease
screening. We would like to view the value of our work from a few different angles.
First, NMR has a broad array of applications in addition to biomolecular sensing,
and from this general NMR point of view, our work on the small, low-cost NMR
is a meaningful development that can help make the benefits of NMR closer to our
lives. Second, from the circuit point of view, our work showcases how silicon RF
integrated circuits can be used not only for wireless applications but also in 1 day for
human health care and disease screening in direct interface with biological systems.
Third, from the biotechnology point of view, our work suggests a way to perform
general-purpose disease screening in the low-cost, handheld platform.
 
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