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er actually needed by the class, including that instance variable will waste only the additional
bytes for the reference. Still, those bytes add up if the application creates a lot of instances of
class B .
On the other hand, defining and creating a ConcurrentHashMap consumed additional bytes
for the object reference, plus an additional 200 bytes for the hashmap object. If the hashmap
is never used, instances of class C are quite wasteful.
Defining only required instance variables is one way to save space in an object. The less ob-
vious case involves using smaller data types. If a class needs to keep track of one of eight
possible states, it can do so using a byte rather than an int —potentially saving 3 bytes.
Using float instead of double , int instead of long , and so on can help to save memory,
particularly in classes that are frequently instantiated. As discussed in Chapter 12 , using ap-
propriately sized collections (or using simple instance variables instead of collections)
achieves similar savings.
OBJECT ALIGNMENT AND OBJECT SIZES
The classes mentioned in Table 7-2 all contain an extra integer field that was not referenced in the
discussion. Why is that there?
In truth, that variable served the purpose of making the discussion of those classes easier to fol-
low: class B contained 8 more bytes than class A , which is what we'd expect (and which made the
point more clearly).
That glossed over an important detail: object sizes are always padded so that they are a multiple
of 8 bytes. Without the definition of i in class A , instances of A still consume 16 bytes—the 4
bytes are just used for padding the object size to a multiple of 8, rather than being used to holding
the reference to i . Without the definition of i , instances of class B would consume only 16
bytes—the same as A , even though B has that extra object reference. That padding is also why an
instance of B is 8 bytes larger than an instance of A even though it contains only one additional
(4-byte) reference.
The JVM will also pad objects that have an uneven number of bytes so that arrays of that object
fit neatly along whatever address boundaries are optimal for the underlying architecture.
So eliminating some instance fields or reducing some field sizes in an object may or may not
yield a benefit, but there is no reason not to do it.
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