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produced by the organism was responsible for the deproteinization of the
shell (Sini et al., 2007).
There is a growing interest in the derivatives obtained from the chitin
hydrolysis, chitoligomers, N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine (Shaikh
and Deshpande, 1993). Ramirez-Coutino et al. (2006) used fungal chitinase
for production of oligosaccharides from the chitin obtained from shrimp
wastes. Crustacean wastes have been used as a substrate for chitinase
production. Suresh and Chandrashekaran (1998) used prawn waste for
production of chitinase by marine fungus, Beauveria bassiana through solid
state fermentation. Shellfi sh waste was used as a substrate for solid-state
cultivation of Aspergillus sp. and chitinase production (Rattanakit et al.,
2002). Bioconversion of shellfi sh chitin wastes for the production of Bacillus
subtilis W-118 chitinase was reported by Wang et al. (2006). Shrimp waste
was used as proteo-chitinaceous substrate for production of proteases and
chitinases by Bacillus thuringensis (Rojas-Avelizapa et al., 1999).
Chitin is prepared from crustacean wastes by a two-step process that
involves removal of constituent proteins including carotene-proteins
followed by the removal of ash content. Traditionally chitin preparation
from shrimp wastes involves the use of alkalis (usually 4% sodium
hydroxide) for deproteinization and acids (e.g., 4% hydrochloric acid) for
demineralization, making this process ecologically aggressive and a source
of pollution (Hall et al., 1997; Rao et al., 2000). Several researchers have
suggested fermentation of shrimp biowaste using LAB as an alternative to
the chemical process of chitin production (Rao et al., 2000; Bautista et al.,
2001; Healy et al., 2003; Rao and Stevens, 2006).
Carotenoids extracted from crustacean wastes would fi nd a potential
use as a source of pigmentation in cultured fi sh and shrimp. Aquatic
animals, which are cultured, do not show the same colouration as that
of their wild counter parts (Spinelli and Mahnken, 1978). Pigmentation
of cultured species like salmonids and crustacean is done through
dietary manipulation (Shahidi et al., 1998). Feeding pigment-enriched
diet is regarded as one of the most important management practices for
marketing farmed salmon (Moe, 1990).
Fish processing industrial wastes offer a huge wealth of biomolecules
that have potential uses. Biotechnological processes like fermentation and
enzymatic hydrolysis can be effectively integrated with the processing
operations to reclaim the nutrient mass, which apart from being lost can
otherwise create an environmental hazard. Further, the recovered bioactive
molecules like enzymes, protein hydrolysates, peptides, carotenoids can be
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