Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Protein Hydrolysates
Being rich in protein, fi sh processing by-products hold a potential for
preparation of protein hydrolysates. Fish protein hydrolysates have
application mainly in nutritional management of individuals who can not
digest whole protein. The most prevalent application of protein hydrolysate
has been for feeding infants with food hypersensitivity (Silvestre, 1997).
The majority of works on preparation of protein hydrolysates from fi sh
processing wastes reveal that the hydrolysates possess anti-oxidative
properties (Amarowicz and Shahidi, 1997; Batista, 1999; Kim et al., 2001;
Mendis et al., 2005; Je et al., 2007). The preparation of protein hydrolysates,
their functional and physiological properties have been reviewed by
several authors (Kristinson and Rasco, 2000c; Guerard, 2006; Kristinsson,
2007, 2008; Fujita and Yoshikawa, 2008; Okada et al., 2008).
Fish Peptone
Fish peptone is a protein, which has been digested to peptides and free
amino acids by proteolytic enzymes. The soluble protein fraction of fi sh
viscera silage is rich in essential amino acids and has a high nutritional value
(Strom and Eggum, 1981; Wright, 2004). Due to low average molecular
weight, it is suitable as an easily digestible protein supplement in the
feed for juvenile fi sh and domestic animals (Ragunath and Gopakumar,
2002). Fish viscera peptone is an excellent nitrogen source in microbial
growth media. It has been used successfully in cultivating fi sh pathogens
like Vibrio salmonicida for vaccine production and has been shown that it
provides better growth than high quality peptones like Bacto tryptone and
Bacto peptone obtained from microorganisms (Clausen et al., 1985; Almas,
1990; Vecht-Lifshitz et al. , 1990).
Apart from the above, fi sh processing by-products are also rich sources
of diverse enzymes. Several digestive proteases, chitinases, lipases,
transglutaminases, collagenases, etc. are the major enzymes that can be
recovered from fi sh processing wastes, mainly visceral wastes (Morrissey
and Okada, 2007). The enzymes available are so diverse in nature that
the topic has been the subject of several reviews (Haard, 1998; Gildberg
et al., 2000; Shahidi and Janak-Kamil 2001) and publication as a text by
Haard and Simpson (2000). Most of these enzymes of aquatic origin fi nd
application in preparation of autolytic silage, sauce preparation, fermented
product preparation etc.
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