leather making etc. (e.g., silage, composting)], food purposes (e.g.,
fi sh sauce) and for specialty products (mainly bioactive molecules; e.g.
carotenoids, collagen, peptides, enzymes, etc.). There is normally a far
better profi tability in making products for human consumption while
the highest profi tability is in producing bioactive compounds that have
biotechnological/pharmaceutical applications (Rustad, 2003). Several
methods have been reported for recovering proteins and lipids from these
processing wastes. These include recovering proteins/lipid and related
products through various physical, chemical and biological treatments
or their combinations. The possible methods of recovering protein/lipid
and related molecules from fi n fi sh and shell fi sh processing waste is
summarized in Fig. 10.2. As can be seen fermentation or hydrolysis using
enzymes results in simultaneous recovery of proteins, fats and related
Table 10.3A Fish production (in metric tonnes) in India in the last fi ve years and estimate
of by-products generated there from
Year Capture Culture Total Waste generated Est.
2003 3712149 2312971 6025120 2711304
2004 3391009 2794636 6185645 2783540
2005 3481136 2837751 6318887 2843499
2006 3844837 3169303 7004140 3151863
2007 3953476 3354754 7308230 3288704
Est. : Estimated considering the average waste on live weight basis to be 45%
Source: FAO (2010); All the values are weights in tonnes.
Table 10.3B Global and Indian fi sh production and current scenario of estimated waste
generation (in million metric tonnes) (FAO, 2010)
Estimated waste generation*
Visceral waste alone**
Shrimps / Prawns only
Estimated waste generation***
*: Estimated considering 45% of live weight to be waste.
**: Estimated considering an average of 6% to be contributed by viscera.
***: Estimated considering that head and body carapace constitute 50% of live weight.
Source : FAO (2010)