Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Microbial Remediation of Fish and
Shrimp Culture Systems and their
Processing Industry Wastes
Wanchai Worawattanamateekul 1,* and Ramesh C. Ray 2
Aquaculture is the world's fastest growing food production sector (Montet
and Ray, 2009). It was once considered an environmentally sound practice
because of its traditional polyculture and integrated systems of farming
based on optimum utilization of farm resources, including farm wastes.
Increased production is being achieved now by the expansion of land and
water under culture and the use of more intensive and modern farming
technologies that involve higher usage of inputs such as water, feeds,
fertilizers and chemicals. These fed fi sh farms produce large amounts
of wastes, including dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus.
Likewise, marine aquaculture effl uents generate substantial amounts
of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and organic matter that exert a
biological oxygen demand (BOD) contributing to the deterioration of the
quality of receiving water. Effl uent water from fi sh and shrimp farms
typically contains dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates which
have been implicated as causing signifi cant environmental impacts such
as eutrophication (Jones et al., 2001). The cumulative impact of shrimp/
fi sh farm wastewater discharges on coasts as a whole and the discharges
of several farms on a single bay is therefore, a serious concern. As the
aquaculture industry develops, effi cient, cost-effective and environmentally
1 Department of Fishery Products, Faculty of Fisheries Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand;
Tel.: 66-2-5790113 press 4088; Fax: 66-2-9428644 press 12; E-mail: ffi
2 Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Regional Centre), Bhubaneswar 751 019, India;
Tel/Fax: 91-674-2470528; E-mail:
*Corresponding author
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