Biology Reference
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spp. (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa, Order Zoanthides), collected
off the Visakhapatnam coast of India (Rao et al., 1984). Some of these
compounds also possessed anti-infl ammatory, cytotoxic and analgesic
activities. Potential of these compounds from dinofl agellate has also been
indicated recently (Sudarsanam and Anita Devi, 2004). Hydroxyapatite
made from the rigid exoskeletons of marine corals can fi ll voids caused
by fractures or other trauma in the upper, fl ared-out portions of long
bones. The material is similar to the human bone in structure. The U.S.
Food and Drug Administration has approved coral-derived implants
for applications such as certain types of bone loss. Marine carbonate as
highly interconnected microporous materials is receiving attention mainly
in medical applications. Three-dimensional microporous skeletons
are found in certain species of coral. The carbonate framework may be
used as a template for the deposition of metals, ceramics, or polymers,
which after removal of the carbonate by mid acid treatment, provides an
interconnected porous composite structure for varied applications (White
and White, 2003). The Caribbean Sea whip contains compounds called
pseudopterosins. These compounds appear to have anti-infl ammatory
properties and have the potential for treatment for skin irritations resulting
from injury or infection (Henkel, 1998).
Sponges are sessile marine fi lter feeders that have developed effi cient
defense mechanisms against foreign attackers such as viruses, bacteria,
or eukaryotic organisms. Protected by a highly complex immune system
as well as by the capacity to produce effi cient antiviral, antimicrobial
and cytostatic compounds, they have survived in the ocean for several
millions of years. Marine sponges are therefore considered as a gold
mine with respect to the diversity of their secondary metabolites that are
capable of providing future drugs against important diseases, such as
cancer, a range of viral diseases, malaria, and infl ammations (Muller, 2004;
Sipkema et al., 2005). Sponges are also rich in antioxidant enzymes such
as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione
reductase, and glutathione peroxidases. The bacteria associated with the
sponge Suberites domuncula showed angiogenesis inhibitor, antimicrobial
and hemolytic activities. The bacterial extracts were also strongly active
against Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis , isolated from hospital
patients (Thakur et al., 2005). Marine sponges contain glycolipids and
phospholipids in their membranes, and are rich sources of unusual fatty
acids containing very long chains (C 23 to C 34 ), known as demospongic
acids, which constitute up to 80% of the total fatty acids. Dragmacidins, a
newly discovered class of bis (indole) alkaloids, have been isolated from a
variety of marine sponges, which have anti-viral and anti-cancer activities
(Capon et al., 1998). Eight new noradrosinane sesquiterpenoids, laevinols
A-H, a new neolemnane sesquiterpenoid, levinone A and also other two
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