Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 7.3 Some bioactive compounds produced by microalgae
Microalgae Bioactive compounds
Cyanobacteria Enzyme inhibitors such as tyrosinase inhibitor
Plant growth regulators
UV-absorbing compounds
Sulfated polysaccharides having anti-HIV activity
Novel antibiotics
Anti-malarial compounds
Immuno-suppressive agents
Compounds having cytotoxic activity
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Rhodophyta Polysaccharide of rhodophyte Porphyridium spp. used as a thickening
Polysaccharides have hypocholesterolemic agent and antiviral
activity against animal viruses including Herpes simplex types 1 and
2 and also retroviruses
Anti-cancer compounds
Chlorophyta Anti-infl ammatory activity
Immuno-suppressive activity
Cryptohyta Signifi cant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence
used in aquaculture feeds
Heterokontophyta Microalgae belonging to this phylum are good raw materials for
production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA)
Diatoms as potential antioxidants and domoic aid
Used as feed in aquaculture
Dinophyta Culturing is diffi cult and hence diffi culties in isolation of bioactive
compounds. However DHA is produced by heterotrophically
grown Crypthecodinum cohnii
Sulfated polysaccharides from Gymnodinum spp. have antiviral
Haptophyta Used as feed
DHA production
Euglenophyta Culturing is diffi cult for most organisms.
Euglena gracilis when cultured photoheterotrophic or photo-
autotrophic conditions produces antioxidant vitamins such as
β-carotene, and vitamin C and E
Source: Matsunaga et al. (2005); Plaza et al. (2009).
Cultivation of Microalgae
Microalgal biotechnology has the potential to produce a vast array
of products from virtually untapped sources (Schweder et al., 2005).
Microalgae can be cultivated for specifi c biochemicals such as pigments
and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Growing microalgae also
facilitates production of hydrogen, methane, ethanol and triglycerides,
through biophotolysis, anaerobic digestion (with yeast), and extraction
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