Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
• Bacteria that produce proteolytic enzymes. These include Bacillus,
Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Halococcus, Halobacterium.
Highly concentrated NaCl (25%) does not have any effect on the
proteolytic activity of enzymes from Halobacte r.
• Bacteria that relate to fl avour and aroma development. Ten out of
17 Bacillus type isolates produced a measurable amount of volatile
acids in nam-pla . Staphylococcus strain 109 also produced a signifi cant
amount of volatile acid in nam-pla.
The patis liquid contained strains Bacillus pumilus , Micrococcus
colpogenes , M. varians and Candida clausenii (Crisan and Sands, 1975). The
patis residue contained single strains of Bacillus coagulans, B. licheniformis
and Achromobacter thalassius . Fungi and obligatory anaerobic bacteria were
absent (Crisan and Sands, 1975).These organisms are halo-tolerant rather
than halophiles, as they could grow on 10% NaCl, not beyond that level
(Crisan and Sands, 1975). When microbiological changes during bakasang
processing were monitored, a variety of bacteria grew during the fi rst 10 d
of fermentation; however after 20 d, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus
were dominant (Ijong and Ohta , 1996). The microfl ora found from Korean
anchovy sauce in the fi nal stage of fermentation included Bacillus cereus,
B. megaterium, B. pumilus, Pseudomonas halophilus and Serratia marcesens
(Sands et al., 1974).
In some recent studies, strains of aerobic, spore forming, gram positive,
moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from nam-pla and budu . They
grow optimally in the presence of 10% NaCl at 37°C and pH 7.0. Three
strains were identifi ed as Lentibacillus salicampi and the remaining strains
were proposed as Lentibacillus juripiscarius based on 16s rRNA-based
phytogenetic analysis (Namwong et al., 2005). Some other strains isolated
from fi sh sauce in Thailand were: Lantibacillus halophilus , Halococcus
thailandensis. Filobacillus sp. RP 2-5 , Piscibacillus salipiscarius, Tetragenococcus
halophilus, T. muriaticus, Halobacterium salinarum (Namwong et al., 2007;
Tanasupawat et al., 2006, 2007, 2009).The bacteria were identifi ed based
on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics including DNA-DNA
relatedness and phylogenetic properties. Likewise, Lentibacillus kapialis
sp. Nov. and Oceanobacillus kapialis were isolated from fermented shrimp
paste in Thailand (Pakdeeto et al., 2007; Namwong et al., 2009).
A total of 67 microbial strains were isolated from momoni (Ghanian
fermented fi sh sauce) obtained from retail outlets. The strains belonged
to nine genera of microorganisms, i.e., Bacillus , Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas,
Pediococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Debaryomyces, Hansenula and
Aspergillu s, with Bacillus having a predominant occurrence of 37.7% (Sanni
et al., 2002).
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