trichopterus (gouramy, pla kra-dee ); Cirrhina jullieni (jullien's mud carp, pla
soi ); Cyclocheilichthys sp. (soldier river barb, pla ta-kok ) and Oreochromis
niloticus (tilapia, pla nin). Recently marine fi sh ( Rastrelliger neglectus and
Rachycentron canadus )—based plaara was also prepared (Sangjindavong et
Generally, freshwater fi sh are descaled, deheaded, eviscerated and
washed with tap water and then rapidly dried. The prepared fi sh is mixed
with salt in a fi sh to salt ratio of 3-5 : 1 by weight and then left at ambient
temperature for 12-24 h before packing in an earthenware jar and left to
ferment for 1 mon. Then, salted fi sh is added with roasted rice or rice bran
in a ratio of 4-5 : 1 by weight of salted fi sh to roasted rice or rice bran. It is
put in earthenware jars and left for at least 6 mon. The shelf life of plara
is approximately 6 mon to 3 yr, depending on the fermentation period
and good handling, such as tight packaging and occasionally mixing to
exchange the upper and lower portions in the jar.
Plara can be consumed as it is by chopping into pieces and adding
some vegetables; chillies, Citrus hystrix leaves, lemon grass or consumed
after cooking by wrapping in banana leave, and roasting is also used for
It is a high salt product in Thailand produced from sea mussel meat
washed in brine (10% salt) and water. After drainage, sea salt is added
(7 : 1; meat:salt ratio, w/w) and mixed well. The product matures in 4-5 d
and is packed in sealed glass jars. It has a shelf-life of 3-6 mon (Phithakpol
et al., 1995).
Pla-paeng-daeng (Red fermented fi sh)
It is prepared by fermenting fi sh and ang-kak rice (red rice) with the
mould Monacus purpureus which gives it a red colour and specifi c fl avour
(Phithakpol et al., 1995).
Some of the fermented fi sh products are given in Figure 6.1.
Jeotkals are the traditional Korean salted and fermented fi sh products and
are popular as side dishes, and also as ingredients in preparing kimchi .
To prepare jeotkals , salt should be added at the level of 5-20% to raw fi sh
and then allowed to ferment for a long period of time to develop taste.
The fermentation period varies depending on the salt concentration and
fermentation temperature; 2 mon for most jeotkals with low salt level
(6-18%). The favourable taste and fl avour may develop gradually during