Other biogenic amines such as cadaverine and putrescine which are
known to occur in spoiled fi sh may therefore act as potentiators of histamine
toxicity. Presumably inhibition of intestinal histamine catabolism will
result in greater transport of histamine across cellular membranes and
into the blood circulation.
Low temperature storage and holding of fi sh at all times is the most
effective preventive measure. All studies seem to agree that storage at 0°C
or very near to 0°C limits histamine formation in fi sh to negligible levels.
Several countries have adapted regulations governing the maximum
allowable levels of histamine in fi sh. Examples are shown in Table 4.10.
Table 4.10 Regulatory limits for histamine in fi sh
Hazard action level
Defect action level
Maximum allowable limit
Farmers, processors and buyers share responsibility for the quality and
harvest and continue during distribution and/or consumption. Proper
controls are required during shrimp growth, pond harvest, processing,
distribution and storage. Due to market and regulatory expectations, the
processor usually assumes continuous responsibility from production
to fi nal sale. Farmers should work with the processor to assure proper
controls are used during grow-out, pre-harvest preparations and harvest
Likewise, regulatory authorities in the country where the shrimps are
farmed are expected to serve as a “competent authority” or third party
providing surveillance and assurances that the shrimps are produced and
processed to provide safe products for domestic and foreign consumption.
The authority and how it is used should support the shrimp farming
industry and provide information that will attract and build buyer
Fig. 4.7 Areas for responsible control.