Java Reference
In-Depth Information
Remainder versus modulo. In math, the value x mod y , or x modulo y , is the non-negative
remainder r that arises from dividing x by y . The value x mod y satisfies:
x = y*q+r and 0≤r<y (for some quotient q , which is unique)
For x≥0 , x%y and x mod y are the same. Consequently, many people call % the
mod operato r. But % and mod differ when x is negative. For example:
-7 mod 5=3 , but -7%5=-2
For x<0 , % and mod are related by the formula:
x mod y = x%y+y
E1 + E2 is conventional addition , e.g. 4+10 evaluates to 14 .
E1 - E2 is conventional subtraction , e.g. 4-10 evaluates to -6 .
E1 * E2 is conventional multiplication , e.g. 4*10 evaluates to 40 .
E1 / E2 is un conventional division . To compute its value, compute con-
ventional division and throw away the fractional part of the result to yield
an integer. For example,
10 / 2 evaluates to 5
10 / (-2) evaluates to -5
13 / 3 evaluates to 4 (i.e. the integer part of 4.333... )
14 / 3 evaluates to 4 (i.e. the integer part of 4.666... )
13 / (-3) evaluates to -4 (that is, the integer part of -4.333... )
14 / (-3) evaluates to -4 (that is, the integer part of -4.666... )
Note that for E1 < 0 , E1 / E2 = - (E1 / E2).
E1 % E2 is the remainder operation. For E1 0 and E2 > 0 , E1 % E2 is the
remainder when E1 is (conventionally) divided by E2 . For example,
6%3 evaluates to 0
7%3 evaluates to 1
8%3 evaluates to 2
For E1 0 and E2 < 0 , E1 % E2 = E1 % -E2 .
For E1 < 0 , -E1 % E2 = -(E1 % E2) .
It is an error if E2 = 0 (an ArithmeticException occurs).
Watch out for = versus ==. A worldwide mathematical convention is that = denotes equality: b
=c evaluates to true or false depending on whether b and c have the same
value or not. Java, following C and C++, has gone against this mathematical
convention, using == for equality and = for the assignment statement. This one
affront to convention has caused more misunderstanding, confusion, and eco-
nomic loss than any other notational choice.
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