HTML and CSS Reference
In-Depth Information
Presentational Attributes
Early versions of HTML were used mostly by scientists and researchers who, for the most
part, didn't need flashy graphics, decorative text fonts, or even much color on a page.
The earliest Web pages weren't fancy and didn't require much from the browsers that
displayed them. This changed as the Web became more popular and attracted the atten-
tion of commercial businesses, graphic designers, and artists.
One way that HTML changed to accommodate this new class of users was to intro-
duce presentational elements and presentational attributes designed to describe
how each element should be rendered by Web browsers. For example, to align text on a
page, Web authors would use the align attribute
< element align=” alignment ”> content </ element >
where alignment is either left , right , center , or justify . Thus, to center an h1 head-
ing on a page, you could apply the following align attribute to the <h1> tag:
<h1 align=”center”>The J-Prop Shop</h1>
Almost all presentational elements and attributes are now deprecated in favor of style
sheets, but you may still see them used in older Web sites. Using a deprecated attribute
like align would probably not cause a Web page to fail, but it's still best to focus your
HTML code on describing the content of a document and not its appearance.
Marking a Line Break
After examining your work, Dave notices that the list of customer comments lacks the
names of the customers who made them. He asks you to add this information to the Web
page, marking the customer information as citations.
To append customer names to the Customer Comments section:
1. Return to the jprop.htm file in your text editor.
2. Locate the first customer comment and then add the following code at the end of
the paragraph, directly before the closing </p> tag:
<cite>Thomas Gage, Circus England</cite>
3. At the end of the paragraph for the second customer comment, insert
<cite>Douglas Pederson, Street-Wise Shows</cite>
4. Finally, at the end of the paragraph for the third customer comment, insert
<cite>Linda Unger, Linda & Louis</cite>
Figure 1-39 shows the revised code in the file.
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