HTML and CSS Reference
Note that you can leave off the value and simply include the name of the control
attribute; however, that is not valid syntax for XHTML documents. This topic will con-
tinue to follow the convention of always including attribute values even when they're not
strictly required by most browsers.
attributes of the audio element
Starts playing the audio clip as soon as it is downloaded
Displays the audio controls in the Web page
Automatically restarts the audio clip when it is finished playing
preload=” type ”
Specifies whether the audio clip should be preloaded by the browser,
where type is auto (to load the entire clip), metadata (to preload only
descriptive data about the clip), or none (not to preload the audio clip)
src=” url ”
Specifies the source of the audio clip, where url is the location and name
of the audio file
You can create a background sound for your Web page by adding the following audio
element to your HTML file:
<audio controls=”controls” autoplay=”autoplay” loop=”loop”>…</audio>
The audio file starts playing automatically when the page is loaded and then loops
back to the beginning when the end of the clip is reached to start playing again.
By default, audio controls are displayed in-line with text-level elements. To display the
controls as a block, you must apply a style rule to the audio element. You'll add controls
to the overture clip now and then create a style rule for the audio element.
Provide background sound
only when you have the
audio controls prominently
displayed on your page so
that users have a way of
turning off the music.
To add controls to the audio clip:
1. Add the attribute controls=”controls” to the audio element, as shown in
adding audio controls
for the embedded
2. Scroll to the top of the file and add the following link element directly below the
link to the jp.css style sheet:
<link href=”clips.css” rel=”stylesheet” />
3. Save your changes to the file, and then open the clipstxt.css file in your text edi-
tor. Enter your name and the date in the comment section of the file, and then
save it as clips.css .