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Drive-through retail ( e.g., banking, fast-food ). The drive-through retail application
for vehicle detection and tracking has been exploding in recent years, and the
amount of data precision is forcing technology usage. It is typically used to track
customer vehicles from order taking, to payment, to service delivery positions.
Parking lot space detection and parking meters [ 30 ]. Parking space and parking
meter applications have similar constraints for low cost and reliable presence/
absence detection of stationary vehicles. Some more modern parking meter designs
also contain special sensors. These sensors use laser lights to determine when the
parking spot has been vacated. When the parking meter determines the spot is empty,
the time remaining on the clock automatically returns to zero. This prevents other
people from using the time remaining on a parking meter after the spot has been
vacated. The special sensor also ensures that cars are removed from areas that have
a limit on the amount of time a person can remain parked in one spot. Figure 10.11
shows a typical parking meter arrangement with three sensor location.
Unmanned railway operation . The first unmanned train operation, using the
same infrastructure in the same time with the ordinary trains, was set out in the
underground stations in Nurnberg [ 43 ]. To allow for automatic train control, a net-
work of several computers is installed in a tunnel under Nurnberg. Using light
waves and wireless, the system is in constant connection with computers and trains
without the need for a driver. Employers in control centers monitor all processes
and are always prepared to intervene if there is a necessity. Platforms are monitored
with cameras and special systems for tracking. For example, if someone or some-
thing falls on railway tracks, the system automatically will stop all trains in that
particular sector of the network. Also, if an infrared sensor registers that something
makes a pressure on the door, then the train will not leave the platform. In the
meantime, the passengers are not aware that they are in train without a driver and
can enjoy the sight in front of them, not blocked with the driver cabin.
Preferred Vehicle
Sensor Location
Parking Meter
2 nd Choice
3 rd Choice
Fig. 10.11 Parking meter sensing
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