Figure 3.5. Cândido Ramirez at the Itaóca Village, 2001.
Figure 3.6. Cândido Ramirez and his wife, after moving to the Ribeirão Silveira Village,
in Ubatuba, 2006.
In this Chapter, I follow the classification advanced by Schaden (1974) and use the
term “Mbyá” to designate the Tupi-speaking adults and children who live in Itaóca
and who identify themselves as “Guarani verdadeiros” or “Hete'i,” and “Nhandeva”
to distinguish Portuguese-speaking individuals who identify themselves as Tupi or
Tupi-Guarani. The two groups do not interact in a systematic way on the Itaóca