6 Volta Grande is demarcated as a separate Indigenous Land, even though it is contiguous to
Sangradouro. It was actually inside the boundaries of the Volta Grande Indigenous Land that Joaquim
Maradezuro was executed. The logo on the side of the white pick-up truck read FUNASA, which
stands for Fundação Nacional de Saúde, the Brazilian National Health Foundation in charge of the
health of Indigenous Peoples.
7 Despite the physical (fences, landmarks) and administrative demarcation (Decree 249 of 10/29/2001)
of the Sangradouro Indigenous Land, land conflicts persist. Farmers have intruded and deforested vast
portions of the savannah in order to plant soy, cotton, and raise cattle. Satellite images show there is
no more space available for agriculture in the central-Brazilian municipalities of Primavera do Leste,
General Carneiro and Poxoréu, where Xavante lands are located.
8 See, for example, the article by Phil Vinter (July 22, 2012): “The changing face of Earth: Dramatic high-
resolution satellite images show how the world has been transformed over the last four decades.” See:
9 For more information about Xavante health, see Ferreira 2003a, b, c, d; Flowers 1994; Vieira Filho
1996; Vieira Filho et al. 1983.
1 0 Amnesty International's Urgent Action (AMR 19/07/03), a follow up of UA 216/02, provides
more information on the circumstances that surrounded the death of Joaquim Maradezuro. See:
Brazil: Fear for Safety (AMR 19/012/2002), available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/
1 1 On August 21, 2002, AAAS released two alerts (case numbers br0215_fer and br0215_top) addressing
the death threats made against myself (anthropologist) and Hiparidi Top'tiro (environmentalist). The
relevant human rights standards cited by the AAAS for these particular case were: The International
Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (article 12), and the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (articles 12 and 19). See: http://shr.aaas.org/projects/human_rights/aaashran/alert.
php?a_id=231 . On June 26, 2003, the International Indian Treaty Council in the USA requested
United Nations' Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Ms. Asma
Jahanqir, to exercise her mandate in respect to the execution of Joaquim Maradezuro.
1 2 This is what several documents indicate, including the Mapa da Fome Entre os Povos Indígenas no
Brasil (The Map of Hunger among Indigenous Peoples of Brazil; INESC-PETI/MN-ANAÍ/BA 1995).
In Indigenous Rights are Human Rights: Four Cases of Rights Violations on the Americas (Amnesty
International, May 2003), the Xavante feature as one of the most marginalized and vulnerable social
groups in the Americas.
1 3 Volta Grande is the name of Joaquim Maradezuro's village.
1 4 In April 2014, $1.00 U. S. dollar was quoted at $2.24 Brazilian Reais.
1 5 A Study Guide on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples can be found at http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/