Biology Reference
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Figure 1.10, cont'd
surveillance, whether passive or active, was not wholly reliable or reflective
of true endemicity levels. The more conservative categorization that is also
applied here, of unstable transmission equating to less than 0.1 cases per
1000 p.a. allowed for less confidence in the fidelity of the prevalence source
information and accounted for inaccuracies in district or provincial level
reporting ( Snow et al., 2005 ; Erhart et al., 2007 ; Sharma, 2007 ).
Biological masks were applied to further constrain the risk in the P. vivax
endemic regions. Environmental conditions can suppress malaria transmis-
sion by limiting various components of the transmission cycle. Tempera-
ture has been shown to affect vector survival, emergence and feeding rates
( Ross, 1911 ; Detinova, 1962 ; Mahmood and Reisen, 1981 ; Ahumada et al.,
2004 ). The most limiting effect of temperature on malaria transmission is the
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