Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Korea DPR displayed small values of
this index despite uncertain predictions of prevalence. Conversely, values for
highly populated areas across India, parts of Pakistan and the stable transmis-
sion region in China, were inflated substantially. Predictions in this region
would be best improved, therefore, with more detailed prevalence data from
these population centres.
Population at risk . The PAR in Asia was, by far, the largest of all of the
regions due to large areas of risk and high population densities. There
were over two billion people living at risk in this region in 2010, which
constituted 82% of the total global PAR. The greatest PAR was found in
India, China and Pakistan with 1.13 billion, 462 and 169 million at risk,
respectively. India's PAR comprised more than half (55%) of the Asia-
region PAR. Together, China and Pakistan made up another 30% (23 and
8%, respectively), indicating that 85% of the region's PAR was attribut-
able to three nations. These nations also had the largest populations in this
region. Compared to India and Pakistan, a smaller proportion of China's
overall population was living at risk of P. vivax . Of China's estimated 1.4
billion people, 33% were at risk of P. vivax , whereas 95% of India's 1.2 bil-
lion and 90% of Pakistan's 188 million people were living at some level of
risk. When we consider both levels of risk (unstable and stable transmis-
sion), we find that 60%, or 1.2 billion, of the PAR in Asia experienced
unstable risk, indicating that over 800 million individuals in this region
lived in stable transmission areas. Countries devoid of stable transmission
areas were Iraq, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Countries with the greatest
population at stable risk in this region were again India (642.07 million),
Pakistan (43.82 million) and China (31.92 million). Other countries that
had large (>10 million) PAR living in stable transmission areas were Korea
DPR (21.07 million), Myanmar (20.48 million), Thailand (17.11 million)
and Bangladesh (16.04 million). Ninety eight percent of the population
living in stable transmission areas was, therefore, found in 30% (7 out of
24) of the countries in Asia.
Vectors . Of the 35 potential P. vivax vector species found within Asia as
a whole ( Table 1.2 ), there are 19 DVS ( Sinka et al., 2011 ) of which, at least
seven are considered to be species complexes ( Harbach, 2004 ). Nine DVS
are found solely in the Asia region, whilst the remaining 10 have distribu-
tions extending into the Asia-Pacific region.
A total of 10,667 unique occurrence points were georeferenced for the
19 DVS across Asia. Records of species occurrence obtained from observa-
tions recorded to point (≤10 km 2 ) and wide area (10-25 km 2 ) locations
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