Biology Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 6.1 Selected Historical Examples of 8-Aminoquinoline Drugs Used for Malaria
Control/Elimination
Location and Date
Drugs and Results
References
Villagers in Taiwan,
early 1960s
Chloroquine/primaquine
Elimination of residual
areas of transmission
Department of Health,
Executive Yuan, 1991 ;
Chen, 1991
Nissan Island, Papua
New Guinea, 1962
Amodiaquine/primaquine
12 weeks of drug ended
transmission for at least
2 years in population of
2000
Rieckmann et al., 1968 ;
Rieckmann, 1963
Zanzibar, 1968
80% of population received
amodiaquine and prima-
quine to supplement
DDT spray program
Dola, 1974
Nicaragua, 1981
Chloroquine/primaquine
70% national coverage
gave temporary decrease
in parasitemia, did not
end transmission
Garfield et al., 1989
Villagers in Malaysia,
1984-1985
SP/primaquine
Reduction in parasitemia for
two months
Hii et al., 1987
Villagers in Indonesia,
1987-1989
SP/primaquine
8 month reduction in
parasitemia
Doi et al., 1989
Villagers in China
1980s-1990s
Chloroquine/primaquine
Malaria control as part of
integrated system
involving bed nets,
insecticide spray
Dapeng et al., 1996
Island of Aneityum,
1992-2000
SP/primaquine
Transmission ended after 9
weeks of medication and
maintained by surveillance
Kaneko et al., 2000
Vivax epidemic in
Kyrgyzstan, 2007
Actual regimen uncertain
but appears to have been
treatment doses of
chloroquine/primaquine
Usenbaev et al., 2006 ,
2008
( Kouznetsov, 1979 ; Bruce-Chwatt, 1972 ). Unless and until the malaria bur-
den is minimized, any pre-mature attempts at elimination are likely to expend
resources including the critical factor of community participation without
achieving lasting results. MDA is currently a difficult and very labour-intensive
process that holds several risks beyond the possible failure to stop transmission.
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