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are hidden in browsers that support the ruby , rt , and rp elements, but will be visible in browsers that
don't recognize these elements. Each single parenthesis should be enclosed in an rp element, with the rt
element in between, as you see in Listing 4-40.
Listing 4-40. The rp element hides ruby parentheses from supporting browsers
<p lang="zh">
<rp> (</rp> <rt>jiù</rt> <rp>) </rp>
<rp> (</rp> <rt>j ī n</rt> <rp>) </rp>
<rp> (</rp> <rt>sh ā n</rt> <rp>) </rp>
In browsers that don't recognize these elements and/or apply no default styling, the annotations will simply
appear inline after the base text they reference, just as if the ruby elements weren't present at all (see
Figure 4-28).
Figure 4-28. Ruby text as rendered by a browser that doesn't recognize the rt or rp elements
For even more information on when, how, and why to use ruby text, along with more examples of practical
usage, see Oli Studholme's indispensible article at HTML5 Doctor, The ruby Element and Her Hawt
Friends, rt and rp ( )
Required Attributes
The ruby , rt , and rp elements don't have any required attributes.
Optional Attributes
There aren't any optional attributes for the ruby , rt , or rp elements.
The term “ruby text” is old British typesetter's jargon referring to very small type, roughly
5.5 points, which was often used for between-the-lines annotations. Why they called this
particular type size “ruby” is a mystery lost to time. Other sizes of type had names like
diamond, pearl, brilliant, great primer, and paragon. Those old printers were an odd
Bidirectional Text: bdi and bdo
Written languages are read either from left to right (like English, Spanish, German, Malay, or Hindi) or from
right to left (like Arabic, Persian, or Hebrew). Documents written predominantly in one language may still
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