HTML and CSS Reference
Model (DOM) focused on describing hypertext documents. he two
technologies are combined in the XHTML speciication.
JSON is a language-independent system for representing data objects. It
is simpler than XML and is oten used as an alternative to XML in AJAX
applications to transfer data objects between a server and a script run-
ning in a user's browser.
CMS (Content Management System) An application program or a
package of sotware tools that facilitates the creation of web pages and
automates their maintenance using a Web-based interface for author-
ing, editing, and administration. he term has broader use beyond the
Web. For our purposes, it refers to any site or sotware that generates web
pages from content stored in a database and provides a means of creat-
ing, editing, and managing that content without requiring knowledge of
HTML, CSS, or FTP. A good CMS permits you to directly enter HTML
with the content for iner control of web page presentation. Blogs are a
form of content management system.
Flash (Adobe Flash, formerly Macromedia Flash) A popular mul-
timedia platform for adding animation and interactivity to web pages.
Flash is commonly used to create animations, advertisements, and
various interactive components, to integrate video into web pages and
to develop rich Internet applications. Some websites are done entirely in
Flash. However, this is now considered a poor practice, partly because
the content of a Flash site is generally inaccessible to robots.
PHP (PHP Hypertext Preprocessor) PHP originally stood for Per-
sonal Home Page. he PHP Group, the informal organization that
currently oversees the development of the language, decided to expand
the meaning of PHP a few years ago and gave us the current recursive
acronym. PHP is a server-side technology for dynamically generating
websites. It is powerful and easy to write but oten diicult to read. A
PHP ile intermixes program logic—PHP statements enclosed in special
tags—with HTML markup. When a request is sent to a web server for
a ile ending with the .php extension, the web server preprocesses the
coded ile, executes the PHP instructions, and returns an HTML docu-
ment to the user's browser. Many modern Web applications, such as the
popular blogging sotware WordPress, are written in PHP.