Java Reference
InDepth Information
Convert to:
Convert from:
boolean byteshortcharintlongfloatdouble
N
C
C

Y
Y
Y
Y
char
N
C
C
C

Y
Y*
Y
int
N
C
C
C
C

Y*
Y*
long
N
C
C
C
C
C

Y
float
N
C
C
C
C
C
C

double
Expressions and Operators
So far in this chapter, we've learned about the primitive types that Java programs can
manipulate and seen how to include primitive values as
literals
in a Java program.
We've also used
variables
as symbolic names that represent, or hold, values. These
literals and variables are the tokens out of which Java programs are built.
An
expression
is the next higher level of structure in a Java program. The Java inter‐
preter
evaluates
an expression to compute its value. The very simplest expressions
are called
primary expressions
and consist of literals and variables. So, for example,
the following are all expressions:
1.7
// A floatingpoint literal
true
// A Boolean literal
sum
// A variable
When the Java interpreter evaluates a literal expression, the resulting value is the lit‐
eral itself. When the interpreter evaluates a variable expression, the resulting value
is the value stored in the variable.
Primary expressions are not very interesting. More complex expressions are made
by using
operators
to combine primary expressions. For example, the following
expression uses the assignment operator to combine two primary expressions—a
variable and a floatingpoint literal—into an assignment expression:
sum
=
1.7
But operators are used not only with primary expressions; they can also be used
with expressions at any level of complexity. The following are all legal expressions:
sum
=
1
+
2
+
3
*
1.2
+
(
4
+
8
)/
3.0
sum
/
Math
.
sqrt
(
3.0
*
1.234
)
(
int
)(
sum
+
33
)
Operator Summary
The kinds of expressions you can write in a programming language depend entirely
on the set of operators available to you. Java has a wealth of operators, but to work