Java Reference
In-Depth Information
double myPrice ) {
burrito = toDecorate ;
price = myPrice ;
public final double getPrice () {
return ( burrito . getPrice () + price );
The combination of an abstract base, BurritoOptional
Extra , and a protected constructor means that the only valid
way to get a BurritoOptionalExtra is to construct an
instance of one of the subclasses, as they have public construc‐
tors (which also hide the setup of the price of the component
from client code).
Let's test the implementation out:
Burrito lunch = new Jalapeno ( new Guacamole ( new SuperBurrito ()));
// The overall cost of the burrito is the expected $8.09.
System . out . println ( "Lunch cost: " + lunch . getPrice ());
The decorator pattern is very widely used—not least in the JDK utility classes.
When we discuss Java I/O in Chapter 10 , we will see more examples of decorators in
the wild.
O n
Field Inheritance and Accessors
Java offers multiple potential approaches to the design issue of the inheritance of
state. The programmer can choose to mark fields as protected and allow them to
be accessed directly by subclasses (including writing to them). Alternatively, we can
provide accessor methods to read (and write, if desired) the actual object fields, while
retaining encapsulation, and leaving the fields as private .
Let's revisit our earlier PlaneCircle example from the end of Chapter 9 and explic‐
itly show the field inheritance:
public class Circle {
// This is a generally useful constant, so we keep it public
public static final double PI = 3.14159 ;
protected double r ; // State inheritance via a protected field
// A method to enforce the restriction on the radius
protected void checkRadius ( double radius ) {
if ( radius < 0.0 )
throw new IllegalArgumentException ( "radius may not < 0" );
// The non-default constructor
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