HTML and CSS Reference
back toward the original state of affairs— documents compatible with
only a single client application.
In an effort to stem the tide, Tim Berners-Lee and Dave Raggett pro-
duced a draft document in April 1993, “Hypertext Markup Language,
Ver 1.0,” and submitted it to the Internet Engineering Task Force
The IETF was the standards body that controlled most of the standards
relevant to the internet: TCP/IP for network communication; DNS for
name resolution, so you can type in an easy-to-remember address like
yahoo.com instead of 184.108.40.206; and SMTP for email, among many
others. The published standards were known as Requests for Com-
ments ( RFC s), reflecting the consensual attitude that marked the
growth of the internet over the previous two decades.
The HTML 1.0 draft was overtaken by the rapid development of
browsers. In the time it took to move through the standards process,
the state of the art in web browsers moved on significantly. But the
web was becoming increasingly popular, so the need for some sort of
standard was even more acute: HTML 1.0 was soon to be replaced by
HTML 2.0 .
The first commercially successful web browser was Netscape Naviga-
tor. Version 1.0 was released on December 15, 1994 and quickly cap-
tured huge market share. It was based on the Mosaic code originally
developed by Marc Andreessen.
Also in 1994, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by
Tim Berners-Lee. The goal of the W3C was to encourage the adoption
of standards across the internet industry, but initially the HTML stan-
dard efforts remained focused within the IETF .
In August 1995 Microsoft launched Internet Explorer, also based on
the Mosaic code. It was not very competitive with Navigator in fea-
tures and was quickly superseded by version 2.0 in November 1995.