Cryptography Reference
In-Depth Information
Computational limitations: Typically, we consider computation-
ally-bounded adversaries (e.g., probabilistic polynomial-time
adversaries). However, the private-channel model allows for
the (meaningful) consideration of computationally-unbounded
We stress that, also in the case of computationally-unbounded
adversaries, security should be defined by requiring that for
every real adversary, whatever the adversary can compute after
participating in the execution of the actual protocol is com-
putable within comparable time by an imaginary adversary par-
ticipating in an imaginary execution of the trivial ideal proto-
col (for computing the desired functionality with the help of
a trusted party). That is, although no computational restric-
tions are made on the real-model adversary, it is required that
the ideal-model adversary that obtains the same impact does
so within comparable time (i.e., within time that is polyno-
mially related to the running time of the real-model adver-
sary being simulated). Thus, any construction proven secure in
the computationally-unbounded adversary model is (trivially)
secure with respect to computationally-bounded adversaries.
Restricted adversarial behavior: The parameters of the model
include questions like whether or not the adversary is “adap-
tive” and “active” (where these terms are discussed next).
Adaptive versus non-adaptive : The most general type of an
adversary considered in the literature is one that may corrupt
parties to the protocol while the execution goes on, and does so
based on partial information it has gathered so far (cf., (37)).
A somewhat more restricted model, which seems adequate in
many settings, postulates that the set of dishonest parties is
fixed (arbitrarily) before the execution starts (but this set is,
of course, not known to the honest parties). The latter model
is called non-adaptive as opposed to the adaptive adversary
discussed first. Although the adaptive model is stronger, the
author believes that the non-adaptive model provides a reason-
able level of security in many applications.
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