Biomedical Engineering Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 1 Current techniques for micro- and nanoscale biomimetic surface engineering
Injection molding,
casting, and
Synthetic polymers
~15 nm
Wilkinson et al.
( 1998 ) and
Gadegaard et al.
( 2003 )
Polymer demixing
Polymer blends (e.g.,
10 nm
Dalby et al. ( 2004a,
b ) , Barbucci et al.
( 2003 ) , Riehle et
al. ( 2003 ) , and
Gadegaard et al.
( 2004 )
Electron beam
Silica, silicon, and polymers
<10 nm
Wilkinson et al.
( 2002 ) and
Malaquin et al.
( 2004 )
Gold colloids
50 nm
Arnold et al. ( 2004 )
and Wood et al.
( 2002a, b )
Peptide-functionalized gold
8 nm dot size
Nanopillars on quartz, silicon,
and polymers
20 nm
Biomolecules (proteins and
polysaccharides) and
chemical compounds on a
fl at substrate
100 nm
Wilkinson et al.
( 2002 ) and Michel
et al. ( 2002a )
Alkanethiols on gold,
trichlorosilanes on glass,
and silicon
<10 nm
Chen et al. ( 2000 ) ,
Finnie et al.
( 2000 ) , and Smith
et al. ( 2004 )
reorganization, signaling, and cell motility (Maheshwari et al. 2000 ) . There appears
an optimal spacing of ~70 nm between individual ligands for integrin clustering and
activation (Arnold et al. 2004 ). In addition to lateral organization, ligand presenta-
tion in the axis perpendicular to the cell membrane plays an important role. When
RGD peptide is mobilized to the substrate with a polymer spacer, linker length
affects effi ciency of cell attachment, and that the optimal distance between RGD
peptide and substrate has been shown to be ~3.5 nm (Shin et al. 2003 ) .
Brief Survey of Nanofabrication Techniques
While the techniques for nanofabrication have been developing at a very rapid pace
in the last decades, the use of nanomaterials in medicine and biology is quite inno-
vative, and much research needs to be completed before we have a full understand-
ing on nanomaterials and nanostructures. Development of nanomaterials and
nanotechniques relies often on well-established progress in the electronic and opti-
cal engineering fi eld (see Tables 1 and 2 ). Several methods have been developed
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