Biomedical Engineering Reference
highlighted in this chapter demonstrate that the unique properties QDs are extremely
well-suited for the highly sensitive, rapid, and nanometer scale resolution necessary
for studying neural structures and subcellular receptor dynamics. These promising
results have already catalyzed interest for further creative use of QDs tailored to
address specifi c neuroscience questions. As understanding of QD properties and
their interactions in physiological systems advances, QDs applications will move
beyond substitutes for fl uorescent tags, and will integrate other QD properties includ-
ing high surface-to-volume ratio, size, and surface chemical interactions to tailored
applications. Diagnostic and clinical applications using QDs in sensor devices and as
drug delivery platforms is an underdeveloped area that will grow as QD-based bio-
logical applications and the commercial availability of QDs continue to expand.
Nanomedicine is a fi eld in its infancy but is a rapidly growing fi eld with demon-
strable achievements. In just a number of years, QDs have transformed from a rela-
tively obscure nanomaterial to one that is steadily achieving routinely use. The
future challenge is to continue to understand the interactions of QDs in neural and
other physiological systems and use this knowledge to engineer truly innovative
tools to address challenging and unresolved biomedical problems.
Acknowledgments We thank Oregon ETIC funding and David Feigelson for his input in the
initial stages of this manuscript.
Alivisatos AP, Gu W, Larabell C (2005) Quantum dots as cellular probes. Annual Review of
Biomedical Engineering 7:55-76, 53 plates.
Ballou B, Ernst LA, Waggoner AS (2005) Fluorescence imaging of tumors in vivo. Curr Med
Bourges JL, Gautier SE, Delie F, Bejjani RA, Jeanny JC, Gurny R, BenEzra D, Behar-Cohen FF
(2003) Ocular drug delivery targeting the retina and retinal pigment epithelium using polylac-
tide nanoparticles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:3562-3569.
Bruchez M, Jr., Moronne M, Gin P, Weiss S, Alivisatos AP (1998) Semiconductor nanocrystals as
fl uorescent biological labels. Science 281:2013-2016.
Brumback AC, Lieber JL, Angleson JK, Betz WJ (2004) Using FM1-43 to study neuropeptide
granule dynamics and exocytosis. Methods 33:287-294.
Burgoyne RD, Barclay JW (2002) Splitting the quantum: regulation of quantal release during
vesicle fusion. Trends Neurosci 25:176-178.
Chan WC, Nie S (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection.
Chan WC, Maxwell DJ, Gao X, Bailey RE, Han M, Nie S (2002) Luminescent quantum dots for
multiplexed biological detection and imaging. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13:40-46.
Costantino L, Gandolfi F, Tosi G, Rivasi F, Vandelli MA, Forni F (2005) Peptide-derivatized bio-
degradable nanoparticles able to cross the blood-brain barrier. J Control Release 108:84-96.
Epub 2005 Sep 2008.
Dahan M, Levi S, Luccardini C, Rostaing P, Riveau B, Triller A (2003) Diffusion dynamics of
glycine receptors revealed by single-quantum dot tracking. Science 302:442-445.
de Kozak Y, Andrieux K, Villarroya H, Klein C, Thillaye-Goldenberg B, Naud MC, Garcia E,
Couvreur P (2004) Intraocular injection of tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles: a new treatment of
experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Eur J Immunol 34:3702-3712.