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Equation 2: v = v 0 + a × dt
Equation 3: p = p 0 + v × dt
These are the basic 2-D dynamics equations that define the acceleration on a body as a function of its mass
and the forces acting on it, and the position of a rigid body in relation to a combination of its starting position,
its velocity, and its acceleration.
Equation 1 spells out that the acceleration on an object is equal to the force being applied to it divided by the
object's mass. Equation 2 calculates the current velocity v if you know the initial velocity v 0 and the acceler-
ation from Equation 1. The symbol dt represents an instantaneous delta of time. Finally, Equation 3 calculates
the position of the object given the initial position and the current velocity from Equation 2.
Assuming that force and thus acceleration is a constant, with a little bit of calculus, you can unify the last
two equations down to a single equation:
Equation 4: p = p 0 + v 0 × t + 1 / 2 × a × t 2
This equation tells you that the position of an object with constant acceleration can be determined as a func-
tion of its initial position p 0 , initial velocity v 0 , and constant acceleration a . For any number of t seconds that you
plug into the equation, you can calculate the position. What's a good example of constant acceleration? Well,
gravity, for one, can be modeled as a constant force of 9.8 m/s 2 .
Modeling a Projectile
Given the preceding equation, you can easily model a projectile launched into the air because its vertical ac-
celeration will just be governed by gravity (a constant), and its horizontal acceleration will be 0 (which also
happens to be a constant). Because you haven't created any sort of vector classes, the easiest way to handle a
2-D position is to evaluate the equation twice each frame, once for the x direction and once for the y direction.
For the x direction, you can simplify the equation further by completely dropping the x acceleration compon-
ent, but leave it in for completeness.
Listing 17-1 takes the preceding equation and uses Quintus to run a simple simulation of a projectile
launched into the air. You can modify any of the initial values to see how they affect behavior.
Listing 17-1: Modeling a projectile with a closed form solution
var Q = Quintus().include("Sprites").setup()
var ball1 = new Q.Sprite({
asset: 'cannonball.png',
x0: 0, // Initial X position
vx0: 20, // X velocity
ax: 0, // X acceleration
y0: 380, // Initial Y position
vy0:-100, // Y Velocity
ay: 20, // Constant Y acceleration
t: 0 // Starting time
});
ball1.step = function(dt) {

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